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lEx^nttitif (Hommm^e 




C. H. MILLS. M.P.P. 
W. J. MOTZ. B.A. 


Prefatory Note 5 

Early Settlement of Waterloo County 8 

Annual Meeting 9 

President's Address 11 

Address by Rev. Theo. Spetz, C.R 16 

Etonations 19 

Annual Members 20 

Prefatory Note 

The first active step looking toward the organization of the 
Waterloo Historical Society was taken on April nth, 1912, 
when, on motion of Messrs. W. H. Breithaupt and H. W. Brown, 
of the Berlin Library Board, a committee consisting of Chairman 
W. J. Motz, Rev. F. E. Oberlander and the Librarian was ap- 
pointed to communicate with President Williams of the Ontario 
Historical Society, of Collingwood, and secure, if possible, his 
presence for some evening for a general public meeting. 

The first public meeting was 'held on Friday evening, April 
26th, 1912, when about fifty citizens were present. Mr. Williams 
addressed the meeting, giving an outline of the activities of the 
Huron Institute and of the Ontario Historical Society and 
affiliated societies. There was a general discussion. A motion 
to take the initial steps of organization was carried and a com- 
mittee was appointed to arrange the details of organization for 
a local society and then report to a second general meeting. 

This committee held several meetings throughout the summer 
and reported to the second general meeting at the Library Hall, 
on November 13th, 1912, with recommendation that a historical 
society for the County of Waterloo be organized with general 
features as follows: — 

(a.) Name, The Waterloo Historical Society. 

(b.) Officers — A President, a Vice-President, a Secretary- 
Treasurer; an Executive Committee consisting of the above 
three and four others. 

(c.) Alembership Fee, One Dollar annually. 

This general meeting proved to be the real organization 
meeting, and the following business was transacted, with Mr. 
W. H. Breithaupt acting as chairman : — 

(a.) The committee's report was adopted as basis of Consti- 

(b.) Date of Annual Meeting was fixed for October of each 

(c.) Officers were elected : 

President — W. H. Breithaupt. 
Vice-President — Rev. Theo. Spetz. 
Secretary-Treasurer — R. G. Wood. 

Other members of Executive — Dr. G. H. Bowlby, W. J. 
Motz, C. H. Mills, M.P.P., H. J. Bowman. 

(d.) The President was authorized to secure quarters for the 

At the first meeting of the Executive on November 26th, 1912, 
the following business was transacted : — 

Page Five 

(a.) H. W. Brown was appointed Secretary pro tern in place 
of R. G. Wood, resigned. 

(b.) Membership fee for ladies was fixed at 50 cents. 

(c.) It was resolved that the Waterloo Historical Society affil- 
iate with the Ontario Historical Society as soon as membership 
reaches 40. 

(d.) The President and Secretary were authorized to prepare 
a news item and have the same published in all the County 
papers. This was duly published as follows : — 

A Historical Society for the County of Waterloo. 

The possession and occupation of the territory of Waterloo 
County by the Indians, its settlement by the white man ex- 
tending over quite a period in the early part of the nineteenth 
century, and its subsequent progress and development, all have 
an interesting history. The compilation of such history in its 
details, and the preservation of all articles of historic interest, 
are part of the work of a 'historical society, the formation of 
which for the County of Waterloo has for some time been under 
contemplation, and is now an accomplished fact. 

The name of the newly-formed society is the Waterloo His- 
torical Society. Its objects are the collection and preservation 
of records of all kinds, such as more or less complete files of 
newspapers of the county, early publications of all kinds, manu- 
scripts, family histories, old documents, and so forth, relating to 
the history of the county ; also mementos of the early settlers, 
old photographs, and Indian objects of any sort, all to form a 
permanent collection. It is the ambition of the Society to acquire 
at an early date, a substantial fireproof county building in which 
to preserve permanently all such records and general objects of 
historic interest. 

Many documents and mementos relating to the early history 
of the county, which could have been obtained some years ago, 
have been dispersed or lost; many are still available, and such 
are particularly sought by the Historical Society. Authentic 
historical documents, or objects relating to the history of Canada 
generally, will also be gladly received. The local histories of 
the various religious denominations or of churches are of great 
interest, as are also the histories of schools and other institutions. 
Other directions of usefulness for an historical society will sug- 
gest themselves to earnest and resourceful members. 

It is the desire of the Executive that all local centres of the 
County be represented in the Waterloo Society by members, and 
as soon as possible by members on the Executive. The annual 
membership fee is one dollar for gentlemen and fifty cents for 
ladies. The fees, together with whatever grants may be made to 
the Society, will be used to provide substantial cases for the 
exhibits now on hand, and for those which shall be placed in the 

P&ge Six 

Society's keeping- from time to time. The Berlin Public Library 
Board has granted the free use of one of its rooms as a repository 
until more permanent quarters are secured. In the meantime it 
is earnestly desired that citizens in all parts of the County, 
whether members of the Society or not, will aid, either by secur- 
ing interesting historic matter, or by intimating where such may 
be secured, by addressing either the President or Secretary. The 
Society will welcome either gifts or loans, and will undertake to 
make every effort to preserve them from injury of any kind. 

W. H. BREITHAUPT, President. 
... H. W. BROWN, Sec'y-Treas. 

The President and the Secretary-Treasurer applied on De- 
cember 14th, 1912, for affiliation with the Ontario Historical 
Society, remitting at the same time $4.00, or 10 cents per member 
for each of forty members. This fee was intended to apply for 
the year 1913. 

On April 7th, 1913, on motion of Rev. Theo. Spetz and Dr. G. 
H. Bowlby, it was decided to invite Dr. Alexander Fraser, 
Secretary of the Ontario Historical Society, and chief of the 
Bureau of Archives, to address an open meeting of the Society 
on April 25th. 

Mr. Peter Fischer was appointed Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Society by the Executive on April 2nd, 1913. 

A grant of $250 was received from the County, a large room 
20 ft. by 25 ft. has been secured on longer lease at nominal rental, 
in the basement of the Berlin Public Library, and the room has 
been fitted for its use. There is a good beginning of a collection, 
in files of County newspapers, a valuable collection of old maps, 
memoirs, etc. 

The present membership is 54, residing in Berlin, Gait, 
Waterloo, Conestogo and Elmira. 



Berlin, Ontario, Dec. 31, 1913. 

Page Seven 

Early History of the County of Waterloo 

At the meeting of April 25th the President gave a brief out- 
line of the early history of the County of Waterloo, of which the 
following is a synopsis : 

There have been several local historians in Waterloo County. 
The late Ezra Eby published in 1895 two large volumes, the 
result of exhaustive and painstaking work, on the Pennsylvania 
Germans, containing some general history but the bulk being 
biographical records of 8495 individuals ; a good paper on the 
Germans of Waterloo County, by the )liilb Rev. A. B. Sherk, ap- 
pears in Vol. VII. of the Ontario Historical Society's publica- 
tions ; the late Hon. James Young, of Gait, published in 1880 an 
excellent book on the history of Gait and North Dumfries ; Mr. 
Gottlieb Bettschen, of New Dundee, a member of this Society, 
has published a book containing some of the early history of the 
Township of Wilmot ; and there have been three or four good 
histories of local churches in the county. 

The settlement of Waterloo County was begun by German 
Mennonite farmers from Pennsylvania in the year 1800, and 
was practically the first interior settlement in Upper Canada, a 
distinction, for this County, on which historians of Canada are 
silent. There had been settlers for a number of years before, 
United Empire Loyalists and others, but these had all been along 
the frontier or the lake shore. 

In the fall of 1799, Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, 
brothers-in-law, from Franklin County, Pennsylvania, came to 
what is now Waterloo Township to explore. They had heard of 
good lands along a fine river; their visit was satisfactory and the 
following year they brought in their families and located, Schoerg 
along the high ground opposite Doon, and Betzner below Blair 
on the west bank of the river. These were the first farms in 
Waterloo County. 

Later, in 1800, more settlers came, and for the next two years 
this continued. The first comers bought their land from one 
Richard Beasley. It was not until 1803 that one of the settlers, 
Samuel Bricker, discovered that the titles to their farms were not 
valid, by reason of an existing mortgage. To pay off this mort- 
gage and to purchase a definite area a company was formed in 
Pennsylvania and a tract in Waterloo Township, 60,000 acres, 
called the German Company tract, was purchased and distributed 
among the shareholders, in blocks of 448 acres, by lot, the pur- 
chase money, £10,000, Canadian currency, being transported in 
silver coin from Pennsylvania. After this the stream of settlers 
continued with renewed vigor until interrupted by the war of 

Benjamin Eby, after a visit of inspection the year before, 
came with a large party in 1807. This remarkable man, made a 
Mennonite preacher in 1809 and bishop in 1812, was for about 

Page Eight 

forty years the leading figure in Waterloo Township. His land 
comprised a large part of what is now the City of Berlin and he 
may be said to be the founder of Berlin, to which he, with others, 
gave its present name in 1826. 

After the war of 181 2, Mennonite settlers continued to come 
and were practically the only settlers north of the Township of 
North Dumfries until about 1820, when Germans, directly from 
Europe, as also Irishmen, Scotdhmen and others began to come. 

In 1816, 94,305 acres, comprising the present entire Township 
of North Dumfries and some adjoining territory, was purchased 
for £24,000 by the Hon. William Dickson, of Niagara, whose 
agent, Mr. Absolom Shade, a Pennsylvania German, at once 
established himself on the Grand River, at the place which 
became the Town of Gait, and started a grist mill, saw mill, and 
trading centre. Settlers, largely from Scotland, were soon at- 
tracted. Gait as a village and later a town outdistanced every 
other place in the County, and it was for many years, until com- 
paratively recently, the chief manufacturing and trading centre 
for a large district. 

The Townships of Woolwich, Wilmot and Wellesley were 
taken up after Waterloo and North Dumfries ; Woolwich largely 
by later Pennsylvania Germans, Wilmot by European Germans, 
among them a large body of a religious sect known as the Amish 
for whom one of their number, Jacob Nachtsinger, had obtained 
a grant from the Government, and Wellesley by Scotchmen 
and others. 

The first church in Waterloo County was built in 1813 by 
Bishop Eby on his own property ; up to that time church service 
had been held in private houses. This first church of the County 
is the Mennonite Church, now in its third building, at the east end 
of King Street, Berlin. A school was started, near Blair, as early 
as 1802, almost at the beginning of the settlement, with a Ritten- 
haus, a name noted in the educational history of Pennsylvania, 
for teacher. 

jinnual Meeting 

Berlin, Oct. 31st, 1913. 

The first Annual Meeting of the Waterloo Historical Society 
was held in the Free Library Hall on the above date, the Presi- 
dent, W. H. Breithaupt, in the chair. 

The minutes of the meeting of organization were read by 
the Secretary and on motion of Rev. Theo Spetz, seconded by 
J. E. Klotz, the minutes were adopted. 

Election of Officers. 

On motion of Alex. Millar, K.C., seconded by Thos. Pearce, 
the officers of 1913 were re-elected to office for the year 1914. 

Page Nine 

Secretary-Treasurer's Report. 

Berlin, Oct. 31st, 1913. 

I have the honor to present to you, the President, officers and 
members of the Waterloo Historical Society a short resume of 
the work and standing of the Society for the first year ending 
October 31st, 1913. 

I am pleased to report that after the Free Library Board 
granted the Society the use of the room, a number of needed 
improvements were undertaken, viz., the laying of a new cement 
floor, painting and tinting the walls and ceiling and installing 
large cases for newspaper files. 

Your President and Secretary have been active in promoting 
the best interests of the Society. We are striving to extend our 
operations as rapidly as possible with the view of covering points 
of historical interest in this County. 

We hope to enlist the active interest of the pioneers of the 
County and their descendants in the work of collecting and 
placing in the Society's care for preservation records of all kinds, 
old documents, family histories, newspaper files, old photographs, 
Indian objects, etc. 

Many valuable documents of the early history of the County, 
available only a few years ago, have been dispersed or lost, but 
many are still to be had and are particularly sought by the 


On April 25th, Dr. Alexander Fraser, F.R.S.C, M.A., Pro- 
vincial Archivist for Ontario, delivered a lecture on "The Jesuit 
Missions to the Hurons." On this question Dr. Fraser is among 
the foremost authorities. His comprehensive lecture was illus- 
trated with lantern views of the men connected with these 

Financial Statement, 19 13. 


Members' Fees $ 53 . 60 

Waterloo County Grant 250 . 00 



Postage, Printing, Stationery $ 32.55 

Cases, Repairs 109 . 59 

Affiliation Fee, O. H. S 4.00 

Expenses at Lecture 6.75 


Balance on hand |150 . 61 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 


Secretary-Treasurer Waterloo Historical Society. 

The report was duly received and adopted. 

Memorandum : The balance shown in the financial statement 
will be required for the payment of outstanding accounts and 
for expenses of the immediate future. 

Page Ten 

President's Jlddress 

Mr. W. H. Breithaupt delivered his address as President on 
the subject, "Some German Settlers of Waterloo County." 

Who were the first white men to visit this territory? Parkman 
in his volumes on the Jesuits in North America gives an extended 
account of the Huron Mission and other Missions projected from that 
one. Parkman drew from the Jesuit relations, the reports sent by the 
missionaries to the Superior of the Order. These Relations were 
originally published by Cramoisy, in Paris. The Province of Quebec 
re-published a large part of them, the bulk of those pertaining to 
Canada, in 185 8. The first Jesuit Mission to the Hurons went from 
Quebec, along the indirect Indian trading route of that time, via the 
St. Lawrence, Ottawa and French rivers, and Georgian Bay, to the 
Huron country, at the south end of Georgian Bay, in 1634. Their chief 
place in the Huron country was St. Marie, not far from what is now 
Waubaushene. Among other missions from St. Marie one went to 
what was known as the Neutral Nation of Indians, whose territory, 
along the north shore of Lake Erie, extended eastward to and beyond 
the Niagara River. In Father Lalement's relation of 1641 appears 
the account of how Fathers Breboeuf and Ghaumonet left St. Marie 
on the second of November, 16 40, proceeded to St. Joseph, about ten 
miles southwest of what is now Orillia, obtained an Indian guide there 
and then journeyed, for five days, to the first villages of the Neutral 
Nation, probably somewhere in the vicinity of Dundas or thereabouts. 
From here they proceeded to eighteen more villages, meeting every- 
where hostile reception, and accomplishing very little of their purpose. 
After four months, by which time they had proceeded well toward the 
west, they decided to return to St. Marie. Not until on their way back 
did they encounter friendly natives. They were entertained for two 
weeks of needed rest and recuperation by a friendly Neutral woman 
and her father. Here they made a vocabulary of the Neutral dialect. 
On the way out it is likely that their course was along the lower 
ground, about the route of the present Grand Trunk Railway line from 
Allendale to Georgetown and Hamilton; but on the return journey 
there is little doubt that they must have passed through this territory, 
along its Indian highway, the Grand River, so that it can be assumed, 
with fair certainty, that Father Breboeuf, of a noble family of Nor- 
mandy, of heroic mind and physical stature, who died a martyr at the 
stake, and Father Chaumonet, Jesuit missionaries, were the first white 
men to traverse this vicinity, and this was toward the spring of 1641. 
Fourteen years before, in 1626, a Recollet Father, La Roche Dallion, 
had visited the Neutral Nation, apparently by a more direct route, from 
Quebec; and it appears likely that fur traders had penetrated into the 
country bordering on the lakes before, but of this there is no authentic 

The Pennsylvania Germans were the founders of Waterloo 
County and their energy, perseverance and patriotism deserve record 
in the History of Canada much more than has appeared. Locally, 
they have, however, been fairly written of. The Scotchmen and others 
of the southern part of the County have also had their local historian. 
My purpose this evening is to give a brief account of some of the first 
Germans of European birth, as distinguished from Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, who came here, and to whom the County so largely owes its 
trading and manufacturing development. 

About eighty years ago, in the thirties of the last century, the 
village of Preston was a very active centre of trade and industry. The 
first comer to Preston appears to have been George Clemens, who drove 
a four-horse team up from Pennsylvania in 1800. John Erb, who came 

Page Eleven 

from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1805, was, however, the 
founder of Preston. He erected a saw mill in 1806, and the first grist 
mill in 1807, where still are the Preston Flour Mills. All this was 
years before the first settlers came from Germany. Of these there 
were a number who bore a large part in the development of the County, 
in trade and manufactures; such men as Jacob Hespeler, Jacob Beck, 
John Clare, Otto Klotz, John and Fred Guggisberg and others. The 
Village of Preston was named, however, not by the Pennsylvania 
Germans, nor by the European Germans, but by an Englishman, 
William Scollick, the first surveyor, who named it after his native 

Among the earliest storekeepers were Adam Ferrie, Jr., son of the 
Hon. Adam Ferrie, of Montreal, and Samuel Liebschuetz, a German 
Jew. Liebschuetz erected several stores and carried on a rapidly- 
increasing business. He left Preston on buying a small mill, which he 
enlarged, at what is now known as German Mills, better known among 
old residents as Jewsburg, from its founder. 

Jacob Hespeler came to Preston about 1835. He was born in 
Ehnigen, Wuertemberg, in 1809, and educated in Nancy, France. Of 
an adventurous and enterprising spirit he left home at an early age 
and spent a number of years in the United States, in various occupa- 
tions, among others that of furtrading in what was then far western 
territory, the State of Illinois, where he was active at Chicago, then 
just beginning in importance. In Preston, Hespeler was first in a 
general store business with one Yoeste, a Jew, who apparently was a 
fugitive from Philadelphia, and was pursued and arrested. Later 
Yoeste was again in business in Preston. Hespeler continued the store 
alone, soon built a larger one, and a dwelling house, and considerably 
extended his business, having also later a mill, a distillery and a vine- 
gar factory in Preston. He tried to procure from John Erb a mill site 
near the Grand River and had come to an agreement of purchase with 
Erb, whose wife would, however, not sign the deed, except on condi- 
tions not acceptable to Hespeler, who decided to pursue opportunities 
elsewhere. He at one time tried to get a foothold in Bridgeport, but 
also without success. In 1845 he secured a water privilege in the 
Village of New Hope from Abraham C. Clemens and soon proceeded to 
build a grist mill and began other manufactures, which all thrived 
greatly. Hespeler continued in business both in Preston and New Hope 
for some time. In Mackay's Canadian Directory, published by John 
Lovell in Montreal in 1851, he is given in Preston as storekeeper, pro- 
prietor of the grist mill, distillery and vinegar works, postmaster and 
magistrate, and in New Hope as proprietor of grist and saw mills and 
cooperage. About 1857 the name of New Hope was changed to 
Hespeler, as we know it now. Mr. Hespeler died in 1881, having 
practically retired from business years before. 

Otto Klotz, a native of Kiel, on the Baltic, born 1817, came to 
Upper Canada at the early age of 20 years. He was of a family of 
grain dealers and shipping men and came to New York, without definite 
intention to remain in America, on a sailing vessel, belonging to one 
of his uncles, carrying a cargo of wheat to supply a shortage on this 
side, and taking eleven weeks for the voyage. He went first with an 
acquaintance to the then fiourishing village of Harpurhey, not far 
from Seaforth, now not even a post office, here intending to take up 
land and pursue farming. He remained only two months, by which 
time he concluded that he was better fitted for some other occupation. 
Hearing of Preston as a German settlement he without loss of time 
went there, and soon decided to remain. He purchased a small brewery, 
which it appears had been abandoned, and carried on a brewing busi- 
ness for some time, with a Dr. Ebert, a chemist. In 1839 he began 
erection of a building, afterwards enlarged from time to time, and 
soon started in the hotel business, his house being known as Klotz's 

Page Twelve 

Hotel, which he carried on for over forty years, and which may be 
said to have been the principal hotel in Preston for most of that time. 
In 1862 he started a starch factory, which, however, was not successful, 
and was soon discontinued. Mr. Klotz was a leading figure in the 
community, especially among the Germans, and in educational matters 
and civic interests generally. He was appointed School Commissioner 
for the District of Wellington about 1841, and Clerk of the Division 
Court in 1848. He was connected with educational matters all the rest 
of his life, as School Trustee or in some other capacity. In 1865 he, 
assisted by two teachers of the Preston School, was largely instru- 
mental in having the ill-adapted readers used in Canadian schools at 
that time superseded by a Canadian series of readers. In 1867 he 
compiled and himself published a German Grammar used in the 
German schools of the County, notably in Preston and Berlin. Klotz 
founded the Preston Mechanics' Institute with books from his own 
library in 1871, and was instrumental in bringing this, practically a 
Public Library, to a flourishing condition. The first fire department 
was organized as a Hook and Ladder Company in 1844, with Jacob 
Hespeler as President and Klotz as Secretary. A regular fire company 
followed in 1850, with Hespeler again President and Klotz Secretary- 
Treasurer, and an engine and other apparatus were procured by 
voluntary subscription. Klotz leased his hotel premises in 1882 and 
retired to private life, continuing only his offices as Division Court 
Clerk and other offices, as also a number of oflSces of trust without fee 
or emolument. He was for many years identified with Grand River 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M., and was Grand Master for the district. Mr. 
Klotz died in 1892. 

Two brothers, John and Fred Guggisberg, arrived in Preston in 
1836 and soon established themselves. The older, John, erected a 
hotel known as the Black Bear. Fred, in 1841, started a chair 
factory, which soon flourished and grew to large dimensions in later 

Jacob Beck (born Grand Duchy of Baden, 1816), an enterprising 
young German, came to Waterloo Township in 1837 from Schenectady, 
N. Y., having come from Germany the year before. He had invented 
a peculiar water wheel, described as of small size and large power, 
which soon gave him an enviable reputation. Starting a small foundry 
in the Village of New Hope he soon transferred to Preston and built a 
foundry on the premises later owned by Peter E. Shantz, where he 
did a rapidly increasing business. Unfortunately, a fire completely 
destroyed his foundry and rendered the proprietor penniless, as he 
had no insurance. Thanks to the liberality of neighbors a sufficient 
sum was raised by subscription to enable Mr. Beck to start anew and 
to have a larger plant than that destroyed by the fire. He soon had a 
large staff selling his stoves, etc., in Western Canada. With increasing 
success he enlarged his premises and took into partnership two of his 
assistants, John Clare and Valentine Wahn. For improving the water- 
power of Robert Hunt, proprietor of the woolen mills in the village, 
Mr. Beck obtained the privilege to build a saw mill on Hunt's property, 
which he carried on for some time. Beck evolved a project for a 
water power canal leading from the Speed River dam and supplying 
power to mills and factories along it, such was the confidence in those 
days in the plentiful flow of the river. The scheme for the power canal 
did not find support. Beck became displeased with Preston, dissolved 
partnership with Clare and Wahn, Wahn continuing the foundry. He 
located a good water supply in Wilmot Township, at a place he called 
Baden, where, beginning in 1856, he soon established a foundry and a 
grist mill and did a flourishing business. Lovell's Canada Directory 
of 1857 gives Beck as postmaster at Baden, miller, founder and 
machinist. Mr. Beck died in 1906. One of his sons is the Hon. Adam 
Beck, Chairman Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, born 
in Baden, 1857. 

Page Thirteen 

A great centre of business in the early days and up to the fifties, 
at the time of the location of the County Seat at Berlin, and the 
coming of the Grand Trunk Railway, was Bridgeport, then a flourishing 
trading centre. The founder of Bridgeport was Jacob S. Shoemaker, 
who built the Bridgeport dam in 1829, the grist mill in 1830, and 
established various other industries. Lovell's 1857 Directory gives 
Bridgeport as having thirty business men, including millers, brick 
makers, carriage makers, shoemakers, waggon makers and tavern 
keepers. There were several general stores in Bridgeport, the most 
important of them being carried on by a German. This was Peter N. 
Tagge, a native of Holstein, where he was born in 1816. Tagge came 
to Bridgeport in the early forties and was in business there for about 
fifteen years. He was post master, general merchant and township 
auditor. Tagge bought and sold grain and did a semi-wholesale 
business with blacksmiths and others. At the height of his prosperity 
he is said to have done a business of about $100,000 a year, not a bad 
record for a Berlin merchant to-day. 

Early European Germans were Frederick and Emmanuel Gaukel, 
Jacob Hailer, Christian Enslin, Anselm Wagner, John Nahrgang, Henry 
Stroh, George iSeip and others. 

Frederick Gaukel, a native of Hessen, came to Berlin, not so 
called until 1826, in 1819 or 1820. He is noted as the first considerable 
hotelkeeper. He built and opened a hotel on the corner of King and 
Queen streets, where now is the Walper House, in 1835. Later James 
Potter was for a long time proprietor of this hotel. 

Jacob Hailer (the speaker's grandfather) was born in Wilferdingen, 
in the Grand Duchy of Baden, in 1804, came to Waterloo Township in 
1832, bought his first acre of land in Berlin from Bishop Benjamin 
Eby in 1833 and at once established himself as proprietor of a chair 
and spinning wheel shop, in which he did a modest but flourishing 
business for well over forty years. He was instrumental in establish- 
ing in Canada the religious denomination known as the Evangelical 
Association, whose regular place of worship for some time, until a 
church was built, was in Hailer's shop. The first church of this 
denomination in Canada was built in 1841, on Queen street south, 
opposite the end of Church street, Berlin. This was a frame building, 
replaced in 1866 by one of brick and moved to Elgin street, where it 
still exists as a dwelling. The present church on Weber street is the 
third building of this denomination in Berlin. Jacob Hailer died in 

The first German newspaper in Canada was published in Berlin, 
by Henry William Peterson, in 183 5, the first number appearing on 
August 27 th of that year. The printing office and dwelling of the editor 
and proprietor was on what is now the southeast corner of King and 
Scott streets, next to the house of Jacob Hailer. The " Canada 
Museum " appeared for only five years, its editor being then appointed 
registrar of Wellington District and moving to Guelph. Mr. Peterson's 
wife was a sister of the Hon. John M. Clayton of the State of Delaware, 
Secretary of State for Presidents Taylor and Pierce, 1848-56, and 
negotiator of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty regarding the great Isthmian 
Canal. His son, also Henry William Peterson, who spent his early 
years in Berlin, was for many years County Crown Attorney of Wel- 
lington, and died on the 17th of July last. 

Anselm Wagner was the first potter in Berlin and had a shop for 
many years on King street south, which, and the proprietor, I well 
remember. His advertisement appears in the Canada Museum. 

Christian Enslin was the editor of the " Der Deutche Canadier," 
the first number of which was issued on January 1st, 1841. Henry Eby 

Page Fourteen 

was the printer and proprietor of this paper. When Waterloo became 
a separate County, Enslin was the first Clerk of the Surrogate Court, 
January, 1853. 

Henry Stroh, a native of Hessen, was born in 1818 and came to 
Berlin in 1837. He was by trade a shoemaker and was engaged in 
various business enterprises in Berlin. He died at the home of his 
son, Jacob Stroh, in Waterloo, in 1901. 

George Seip, a native of Alsfeld, Hessen, came to Berlin in 1844, 
started first a cooperage, then a brewery, which he carried on for many 
years, in premises partly still standing on Queen street south and partly 
taken down to make room for the present auditorium buildings. He 
died in 1875. 

In 1855 we find Henry Stroh, above mentioned, in business with 
Carl Kranz, a native of Altenburg, in the Grand Duchy of Hessen, 
where he was born in 1803, the son of a Lutheran clergyman. Kranz 
received a thorough education and was for a long time steward of 
Count von Erbach. He came to America in 1851 and to Berlin in 
1855, where he at once started business, as stated. Kranz's business, 
later C. Kranz & Son, was for many years in a frame building on 
King street, in the centre of the block between Queen and Elizabeth 
streets, now known as 22-24 King street east. He died in 1875, when 
his son, Hugo Kranz, was Mayor of Berlin. 

Friederich Rittinger and John Motz, then young men, issued on 
the 29th day of December, 1859, the first number of the " Berliner 
Journal," a weekly newspaper, which soon became, as it remains to 
this day, in the second generation of the firm of Rittinger & Motz, the 
principal German newspaper in Canada. 

Friederich Rittinger was born in the Grand Duchy of Baden in 
1833. His mother died early. In 1847 he came with his father, two 
brothers and a sister, to Canada, landing in Quebec, and soon made his 
way to the German settlement in Berlin, Canada West. Here, when 
still under fourteen years of age, he became printer's apprentice to 
Henry Eby, the publisher of the 'Deutche Canadier." For several years 
part of the boy's work was the delivery of this paper to subscribers in 
Waterloo and Wilmot townships. As printer and general assistant 
Rittinger remained with the " Deutche Canadier " until the " Journal " 
was begun, this becoming his life work. He died in 1897. 

John Motz was a native of Prussia, where he was born in 1830. 
Having lost his father and mother early in life he decided in 1848 to 
join his sister and her husband who had emigrated to Canada some 
years before. He first arrived in Berlin in June, 1848. For three 
years, from 1850 on, he was apprentice to C. K. Nahrgang, a tailor. 
Later he was in various places in the county and for a year in Daven- 
port, la., and Rock Island, 111. Returning to Berlin in 1858 he entered 
the Grammar School with intent to fit himself as teacher. His former 
acquaintance with Friederich Rittinger was renewed, and the resolution 
to publish a German newspaper gradually took shape. Messrs. Rit- 
tinger and Motz sought at first to buy the " Deutche Canadier." Not 
succeeding in this they projected, and duly launched, the " Berliner 
Journal." Of public spirit, John Motz was Town Councillor, Deputy 
Reeve, and in 1880 and 1881, Mayor of Berlin. In politics he was 
active in the Reform party for many years, was Vice-President and 
later President of the Reform Association of North Waterloo. He was 
appointed Sheriff of Waterloo County in December, 1900. This office 
he retained until his death in 1.911. 

Such are brief sketches of comparatively few of the early Germans 
who came to Waterloo County and took part in its development. There 
are many more well worthy of record. One large aim of the Waterloo 
Historical Society is to obtain and preserve records of individuals 
active in the early and later progress of every phase of the County's 
development. It may, with satisfaction, be stated that a fair beginning, 
for the short time the Society has been active, has been made. 

Page Fifteen 

JldJress delivered h}) T^ei). Theo. Spetz, C.R., Berlin 

"The Importance of Local History." 

A systematic record of the vicissitudes of the human race as a 
whole or according to races, countries or nations, or according to in- 
dividual districts or institutions gives us universal, national, local 
history and biography. 

Our little society of recent origin aims in the first place at 
gathering and preserving relics, documents, facts, events, etc., con- 
nected with the settlement and development of our own immediate 
neighborhood in Berlin and throughout the County. 

It would be a mistake to think that a district like ours, settled 
only about a hundred years ago, could not furnish material of interest 
to the student or useless to the historian. On the contrary, the writer 
of national or universal history needs, above everything, as his founda- 
tion and starting point, a clear knowledge of the people, their character 
and habits, their social and religious life and activity in the vario'us 

Much of so-called history is nothing but a collection of deeds of a 
few prominent men, — kings, generals and statesmen; of wars, battles 
and conquests, without deep inquiry into the character and conditions 
of the people and circumstances which can account for the success or 
failure of its leaders. As a result such history is necessarily one-sided, 
imperfect, if not entirely false. 

This fact became evident to many in more recent years and brought 
forth a host of investigations, especially in the older and more civilized 
communities, where men turn with eager minds and keen attention to 
the study of single villages, towns or cities, or a single point in the 
social condition and circumstances of a community. The particulars, 
thus laboriously gathered by innumerable workers, furnish a wealth 
of important material for the history of a community, country or 
nation, on which the writer of universal history must base his work 
if it is to be thorough and true to life. 

For the historian, authentic facts, events and documents are, of 
course, of prime necessity. But he must also study and weigh carefully 
many other important data. Least of all is he allowed to brush aside 
as useless traditions whether they be national, local or concerning 
single groups of people and families. Tradition concerning important 
events may be just as important to the historian as any other fountain 
of knowledge, even though the tradition may have been embellished 
and possibly somewhat modified in the course of years or ages. 

This truth was disregarded by a modern school of historians, who 
thought it proper to reject every tradition that could not be upheld 
by contemporary or quasi-contemporary evidence. Hence the failure 
of this school of hypercritical historians. As a signal example of such 
a failure you may take Dr. Mommsen, who wrote a history of Rome in 
four large volumes, which at the time of its appearance, a generation 
ago, was believed to be the last and up-to-date word on Rome. He 
disregards tradition almost entirely as unreliable. Hence the early 
centuries of Rome, from Romulus to about the time of the democratic 
republic, or close to 400 years of Roman history, he disregarded as 
fictitious. According to Mommsen, Rome was much younger than we 
had been taught in our youth. 

Now, recent excavations on the site of old Rome, not only show 
that Rome is really as old as tradition said it was, but under the ruins 
of early Rome remains were found of a city much older than the Rome 
of Romulus. Inscriptions on stone were found which thus far have 
baffled the acumen of the best students of ancient languages. Thus 
Mommsen's history of Rome remains a splendid monument of a great 

Page Sixteen 

professor, but as a history of ancient Rome it is a huge failure, just 
because he rejected tradition as unreliable. 

Old Troy gives another example. The hypercritical school of his- 
torians denied, among many other supposed events, the truth of the 
Trojan war. Dr. Schliemann, a celebrated German professor of ancient 
languages, became indignant at the modern historians who tried to 
do away with the siege of Troy, and endeavored to deny the existence 
of the city together with Homer, its poetic historian. Supported by 
influential and wealthy friends, he first endeavored to locate the site 
of the ancient city which had been entirely forgotten for ages. Having 
located what he believed to be the site of old Troy, he began to excavate 
there. To his joy and satisfaction he found that the excavated city 
corresponded exactly in detail with the description of Troy, as given in 
the immortal Iliad. The same mistake is being made more recently 
by a new school of writers, who presumptuously call themselves higher 
critics in dealing with the book of books. These super-wise gentlemen 
are endeavoring by various methods to undermine the authenticity and 
authority of the Bible. But, what one of them asserts as undoubted 
truth, a dozen others of the same tribe at once tear to tatters and 
shreds as utterly baseless. This, and much more that could be men- 
tioned, shows that tradition, whether profane or sacred, must be 
reckoned with. To disregard it is fatal to the historian, be he ever so 
learned and deep. 

As to our little infant historical society we hope to interest some 
in local historical research. No doubt most of us have our hands full 
with the labors of our vocation or calling. The leisure class in our 
county is still small. Nevertheless, where the field is so extensive and 
withal so little cultivated, something should be done, and the sooner it 
is done the richer will be the harvest. 

Something, however, has already been done. Some years ago, Mr. 
Ezra Eby, a college classmate of the speaker, published what might 
be called a Biographical Dictionary of the Mennonite Settlers of Water- 
loo County. This work in two large volumes is indeed a monument 
of painstaking and diligent labor of a life time. It is a pity that it does 
not also cover the religious life of these good people and splendid 
colonizers. A history of their various churches and meeting houses 
throughout the County would certainly make most interesting and 
useful reading and supply a fund of information for the coming 
historian of the County. Then a history of every other church, school, 
public and private institution, would furnish a great fund of informa- 
tion. So would a history of every business and industrial establishment. 
As to churches, the minister of each one could gather the particulars 
concerning his own church and congregation better than anyone else 
in his spare time, because they are upon the ground and well acquainted 
with their people. 

Mr. Young, of Gait, also wrote much and well on North Dumfries 
and Gait. 

W. H. Smith published a history of Canada West about 1851. It 
embraces two large volumes filled with a wealth of most important 
information. To obtain it Mr. Smith travelled over the then settled 
parts of Canada and secured his data at first hand from the early 
pioneers. He describes the various districts as he went from one village 
to another, gives the nature of the soil, the timber, etc. He also gives 
the population, industries and churches; the character, nationality and 
condition of the people, and furnishes a fund of statistics according 
to municipalities. What struck the speaker most when perusing this 
wonderful work was the enormous quantities of maple sugar produced 
all over the province in those years. Where was it consumed? 

Page Seventeen 

The speaker a few years ago became interested in the beginning 
and development of the Catholic Church of the County, especially in 
the German element thereof. 

He spent his leisure hours for about two years in collecting in- 
formation on this subject and found it a most instructive and edifying 
study, though anything but easy. He hopes to find time to digest and 
write up the Catholic Church of the County and deposit the results of 
his labors with the Historical Society. Whether he will be able to see 
it published is another question. His present field of labor leaves him 
too little time to devote to work outside his vocational duties. 

Many of the counties of Ontario have already found their 
historians, like Perth and Bruce, which are both much younger 
than Waterloo. May Waterloo soon find its historian also. Though one 
of the smaller counties it is one of the best and most prosperous and 
progressive and should not allow itself to lag behind in historical 

Mr. Thomas Hilliard, Waterloo, in his opening remarks en- 
dorsed the suggestion of Father Spetz, respecting the compiling 
of historical sketches of the religious denominations, educational 
institutions and industrial growth of the County of Waterloo. 
Mr. Hilliard gave an informal sketch of the founding and growth 
of the Town of Waterloo from 1806. 

The address was greatly appreciated. 

A ft k 

Page Eighteen 

T)onations received in 1913 

Complete files of the " Berliner Journal," from December 29th, 
1859, to December 25th, 1912. Donated by W. J. Motz, Berlin. 

" Der Morgenstern," of 1840-1841. Donated by the J. Motz Estate. 

" Deutsche Canadier," of 184 8. Donated by Alex. Millar, K. C. 

" Deutsche Canadier," of 1856-62, and " Berlin Telegraph," 1857- 
1864, incomplete files. Donated by W. J. Motz. 

" Pilgrim's Progress," third part, in German, published in Berlin, 
by Henry Eby, in 1850. Donated by Mr. J. Wellein. 

German Grammar, by Otto Klotz, dated Preston, 186 7. Donated 
by J. B. Klotz. 

History of the Parish of Wilmot, 182 8-1913. Donated by Charles 
James Fox, New Hamburg. 

Souvenir History of Trinity Church, Gait. Donated by Canon 

Biographical Memoirs of the late Catharine Breithaupt. Donated 
by W. H. Breithaupt. 

History of the Bettschen Family. Donated by Gottlieb Bettschen, 
New Dundee. 

Tour through Switzerland, by Gottlieb Bettschen. 

Portfolio of maps of Berlin, Gait, Guelph, Stratford, etc., many 
being fifty years old. Donated by F. E. Oberlander, D.D. 

Maps of Berlin, 1855; Bridgeport, 1856; New Hamburg, 1854; 
Waterloo, 1855. Donated by W. M. Cram, Berlin. 

Deed bearing date July 20th, 1805, written upon parchment and 
indented, wherein Daniel Erb and .Jacob Erb, of the Home District of 
Upper Canada, sold to Joseph Eby, of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 
two original township lots, which they had purchased from Richard 
Beaseley, of the Niagara District. Donated by E. P. Clement, K. C, 

Four-horse settlers' wagon, driven by Abraham Weber, who came 
with a large party of settlers from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, to 
the site of Berlin, where he located in 1807. In travelling, this wagon 
was fitted with a closed canvas top. Donated to the Society by George 
L. Musselman, of Woolwich Township, near Conestogo, October, 1913. 

Side saddle, of fine workmanship, formerly belonging to Nancy 
Erb, wife of Daniel Schneider, who was for many years postmaster, 
storekeeper, etc., in Waterloo. Nancy Erb, then eleven years old, came 
in 1805 with her father, John Erb, the founder of Preston, and family, 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, to what became Waterloo Town- 
ship. Donated to the Society by Mrs. L. J. Breithaupt, Berlin, October, 

A wheel, which was part of the light pleasure wagon presented to 
Samuel Bricker by the shareholders of the German Company in 1804. 
In this vehicle in May of the same year, and in care of Samuel Bricker 
and David Erb, was brought from Pennsylvania to Canada, a distance 
of 500 miles, the money to pay Richard Beaseley for a free title to 
60,000 acres in Waterloo Township, "The German Company Tract." 
Presented to the Society by Allan Huber on behalf of Mrs. Herman 
Hertel, of Freeport, a great grand-daughter of Samuel Bricker. 

Loan Collection 

The files of the "Gait Reformer, from 1853 to 1912, with the ex- 
ception of those of 1863, '64, '65, '66, '68, '70, '71, '72, '73, '74, '79, 
'82, '84, 1901, 1902. These files are a bequest of the late Hon. James 
Young to the Gait Public Library and have been loaned to the Waterloo 
Historical Society. 

Page Nineteen 

Annual Members 

Bean, D. A Berlin 

Beaumont, E. J Berlin 

Bettschen, Gottlieb New Dundee 

Blake, J. R Gait 

Bowlby, G. H., M.D Berlin 

Bowman, H. J Berlin 

Breithaupt, W. H Berlin 

Brown, H. W., B.A Berlin 

Clement, E. P., K.C Berlin 

Cram, W. M Berlin 

Dickson, J. A. R., D.D Gait 

Dunham, Miss B. M., B.A Berlin 

Eden, J. R ^ Berlin 

Euler, W. D Berlin 

Fennell, James P Berlin 

Fennell, John Berlin 

Fischer, P Berlin 

Forsyth, D., B.A Berlin 

Hagedorn, C. K Berlin 

Hett, J. E., M.D Berlin 

Houston, D. W Berlin 

Huber, Allan Berlin 

Klotz, Jacob E • • Berlin 

Lang, Louis Gait 

Livingstone, James Baden 

Meilke, E. F Conestogo 

Millar, Alex., K.C Berlin 

Mills, C. H., M.P.P Berlin 

Motz, W. J., B.A Berlin 

Musselman, George L Conestogo 

Niehaus, C. F • • Berlin 

Oberlander, F. E., D.D Berlin 

Pearce, Thomas Berlin 

Playford, B. B Waterloo 

Potter, George E Berlin 

Richmond, Elliott Berlin 

Schmalz, W. H Berlin 

Sims, H • • Berlin 

Sims, P. H Toronto 

Smyth, Robert Berlin 

Snider, E. W. B Conestogo 

Snider, W. W • • Conestogo 

Snyder, Alfred Conestogo 

Snyder, William H Conestogo 

Spetz, Rev. Theo Berlin 

Staebler, H. L Berlin 

Uttley, W. V Berlin 

Vair, Thomas Gait 

Wedd, G. M Berlin 

Weichel, W. G., M.P Waterloo 

Werner, A • Elmira 

Wideman, John L Conestogo 

Williams, S. J Berlin 

Winkler, W. iH Conestogo 

Witzel, T. A Berlin 

Zinger, Rev. A. L Berlin 

Zinger, W. J Berlin 

Page Twenty 






of the 













C. H. MILLS, M.P.P. 
W. J. MOTZ, B.A. 

Frontispiece 7 

Constitution and By-Laws 9 

Annual Meeting 12 

President's Address 14 

History of Gait Public Library 17 

Boundaries of Canada 20 

School History, Waterloo County and Berlin 33 

Biography 49 

Donations 51 

Annual Members 52 




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Frontispiece — Stedman-Indian Deed 

The frontispiece is a reproduction of the second folio, with 
most of the signatures and the much later certificate of registra- 
tion, of the deed, given Philipp Stedman by the Sachems of the 
Six Nation Indians in 1795, for a tract of land on the Grand 
River, from just above Paris to above Gait, purchased by the 
Hon. William Dickson in 1816, now, substantially, the Townships 
of North and South Dumfries. Stedman made small payment 
only; a large mortgage remained until paid off by Dickson in 

The totems of the grantors will be noted on the left and thumb 
prints, in sealing wax, on the right of the signatures. Appended 
to the deed, by its binding tape, is a large wax seal, about three 
inches across and half an inch thick. 

The text of the deed here follows : 

To All Persons to Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting, 

Know ye, that we, the undersigned Sachems and Chief 
Warriors of the Mohawk, Oghgwaga, Seneka, Onondaga, 
and Cayuga Tribes or Nations of Indian Americans living on 
and inhabiting and owning the lands of the Grand River, or River 
Ouse, in the Province of Upper Canada, in North America. For 
and in consideration of the sum of Ten thousand, two hundred, 
and fifty pounds, ten shillings, estimating dollars at eight shillings 
each, to us in hand, well and truly paid before the ensealing and 
delivery hereof, to and for the use of the Sachems and chief 
warriors aforesaid, and of the several nations of Indian Ameri- 
cans aforesaid, by Phillip Stedman, of Fort Erie Township, in 
the County of Lincoln, and Province of Upper Canada, aforesaid, 
Gentleman, the receipt whereof we do in our aforesaid capacities 
hereby acknowledge, have given, granted, bargained, sold, aliened, 
released, conveyed and confirmed ; and by these presents, 
do give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, release, convey and con- 
firm unto him the said Phillip Stedman, and to his heirs 
and assigns, the following Tract or parcel of land lying 
upon and adjoining the said Grand River, viz. Beginning at the 
second Forks of said river, above the Mohawk village thereon, 
which forks are formed somewhat above the new road leading 
from the head of Lake Ontario to the river Le Tranche, alias, 
Thames, and thence extending up the said river, (and to be 
parallel with the river road aforesaid) about a north northwest 
point, full twelve miles, carrying and containing the full breadth 
of twelve miles across said river, or six miles on each side of the 
same and containing one hundred and forty-four square miles, or 

ninety-two thousand one hundred and sixty acres, being part 
of the Tract of land granted to the said Indian Nation by his 
Excellency Frederick Haldimand, late Gov'r. of Quebec and its 
dependencies, as by His Grant thereof reference thereto being 
had, as also to the survey of said lands, made by order of his 
Excellency, John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of the 
said Province of Upper Canada, may appear: Reserving, never- 
theless, out of and from the said Tract of land, full one thousand 
acres, and no more, to be pitched and laid out for the use, and 
at the election and choice of Captain Joseph Brant of the said 
Grand River, five hundred acres of which to be a pinery. 

To have and hold the above granted and bargained prem- 
ises with all the privileges and appurtenances thereof, to him 
the said Phillip Stedman, and to his heirs and assgns forever: 
We hereby engaging in our said capacities of Sachems and chief 
Warriors of the Tribes and Nations aforesaid, to warrant and 
defend the said granted and bargained premises to him the said 
Phillip Stedman and to his heirs and assigns against the lawful 
claims and demands of any person or persons whomsoever. 

In testimony whereof, the said Sachems and Chief Warriors 
of the Mohawk, Oghgwaga, Seneka, Onondaga, and Cayuga 
Tribes or Nations of Indian Americans have hereunto subscribed 
their names and sealed their seals this second day of March in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety- 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us: 

Robert Kerr, J. P. Jos. Brant. 


John Young 
William Nelles 
Daniel Young 
Warner Nelles 

Constitution and B^-Laws of 
The Waterloo Historical Society 

Adopted 1914 

Article I.— Title. 

The name of this organization shall be the Waterloo 
Historical Society. 

Article II. — Objects. 

The objects of the Waterloo Historical Society shall be the 
collection, preservation, exhibition and publication of material 
pertaining to the history of the County of Waterloo in particular, 
and to Canadian Historical records generally; acquiring docu- 
ments and manuscripts, and obtaining narratives and records of 
pioneers, maintaining a gallery of historical portraits and a 
historical museum, publishing and diffusing information relative 
to the history of the County, and in general encouraging and 
developing within this County the study of its history. The 
museum and general headquarters of the Society shall be in 
Berlin, the county town of Waterloo County. 

Article III. — Members. 

The Society s'hall be composed of the following classes of 
members, viz. : — 

a. Honorary Members. 

b. Ex-officio Members. 

c. Life Members. 

d. Annual Members. 

Members of all classes shall be elected by the Councilof the 
Society at any of its regular meetings. 

Honorary Members shall be chosen by the unanimous vote of 
the members of the Council present at any regular meeting 

Ex-officio Members shall be the Dominion and Provincial 
Members of Parliament in both ridings of the County, the mem- 
bers of the County Council, and the Mayors of the incorporated 
cities of the County. 

Annual and Life Members shall be chosen by a majority vote 
of the members of the Council present at any regular meeting 

Honorary and ex-officio Members shall pay no dues. 

A payment of twenty dollars into the funds of the Society 
shall constitute Life Membership. 

Annual Members shall pay a fee of one dollar per annum; 
Lady Annual Members shall pay fifty cents per annum. 


Article IV. — Officers. 

The affairs of this Society shall be managed by a Council 
composed of the following: — 

A President, a Vice-President, a Secretary-Treasurer and four 
additional members elected by the Society. These officers shall 
form a Council to control and provide for the general interests 
of the Society. 

The Council shall fix the remuneration of the Secretary- 

Five or more members of the Society residing in any local 
centre of the County, outsde of Berlin, shall be entitled to elect 
a local vice-president who shall be a member of the Council. 

The President and Secretary-Treasurer shall be ex-officio 
members of all committees. 

In addition to these officers an auditor shall be elected every 
year at the Annual Meeting to examine the books of the Society 
before the financial statement is presented to the next Annual 

All members of the Council shall hold office until their suc- 
cessors are regularly appointed. 

Article V. — Affiliation. 

This Society shall be affiliated with the Ontario Historical 


I. — Meetings. 

The Annual Meeting of this Society shall be held on the last 
Friday of October. in each year. 

Such meeting shall be for the election of officers, presentation 
of reports and papers, and for the transaction of general business. 

General meetings may be held during the year, as deemed 
advisable by the Council. 

Four members shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of 
the Council. 

The meetings of the Council shall be held on the call of the 
President, or upon request to the President of any three members 
of the Council, and such meetings shall be deemed regular 
meetings on notice thereof being issued not less than five days 
before the date of the meeting. 

II. — Resolutions. 
All resolutions and motions must be presented to the 
Secretary-Treasurer in writing. 

III. — Publications. 

All correspondence and papers must be authorized by the 
Council before being published in any paper, pamphlet or 
periodical over the name of the Society. 


IV.— Duties of Officers. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society and 
conduct them after the prescribed order of business. In the 
absence of the President, a Vice-President or other persiding 
officer shall preside. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall issue all notices of meetings, 
shall keep correct minutes of meetings held, and shall read such 
minutes at the next regular meeting. He shall have charge of 
all correspondence and of all printing, and shall present a report 
at the Annual Meeting. He shall receive, collect, hold and receipt 
for all fees and other monies, and disburse them by order of the 
Council. All monies received or collected shall be deposited in 
the Canadian Bank of Commerce to the credit of the Waterloo 
Historical Society. All amounts shall be paid by cheque, signed 
by the President and Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall be the custodian of the Society's 
Museum and property generally. , 

The Auditor shall examine the Treasurer's accounts before 
they are submitted to the Annual Meeting. 

v.— Election. 


The officers of the Society shall be nominated and elected by 
ballot, if so desired, at the Annual Meeting. 

Should any officer be unable to complete his or her year, the 
Council shall 'have power by a two-thirds vote at any lawful 
meeting to elect a successor. 

VI. — Amendments. 

The Constitution or the Bylaws may be altered or amended 
by a two-thirds vote of fifteen or more members present at any 
Annual Meeting, notice of proposed amendment or alteration 
having been handed in to the Council in writing not less than 
one month previous to the Annual Meeting. 

VII. — Order of Business. 

The Order of Business at the Annual Meeting shall be as 
follows : — 

1. Minutes of previous meeting. 

2. Correspondence. 

3. Annual Report of the Secretary-Treasurer. 

4. Appointment of Auditor. 

5. Election of Officers. 

6. Amendments to Constitution or Bylaws. 

7. President's Address. 

8. Other papers and addresses, and business. 


Annual Meeting 

Berlin, November 13th, 1914. 

The Second Annual Meeting of the Waterloo Historical So- 
ciety was held in the Free Library Hall on the above date, the 
President, W. H. Breithaupt, in the chair, 

Secretary-Treasurer's Report. 

Berlin, November 13th, 1914. 

I have the honor of presenting the Second Annual Report of 
the Waterloo Historical Society for the year ending October 31st, 

The work of the Society has made progress during the past 
year, and a number of notable additions have been made to the 
Society's collection. 

Your President and Secretary have visited various parts of 
the County and have placed the needs of the Society before 
representative citizens. We have been assured of support every- 
where, and hope to receive valuable contributions from time to 

It is apparent that material of much historical value has been 
scattered or lost, but there is much still to be had which should 
be secured without delay to be added to our collection. 

A list of donations received during the year appears elsewhere. 

The hope is expressed that the membrs of the Society will 
continue to take a deep interest in collecting material for our 
museum. Let this be anything pertaining to the early settle- 
men of this County, for example, old documents, deeds, family 
histories, photographs, Indian objects, etc. 


This year we were fortunate in having an address by Dr. Otto 
Klotz, Dominion Astronomer, of Ottawa. The address, which 
was an excellent presentation of the subject dealt with "The 
Boundaries of Canada." 


Financial Statement. 

Receipts for 1914: 

Balance from 1913 $150 . 61 " 

Berlin Free Library for repairs 13. 00 

Members' Fees 51.50 

Waterloo County Grant 100.00 

Legislative Grant 100 . 00 

1913 Reports 1.00 


(Disbursements for 1914: 

Postage, Printing and Stationery ........ $ 44 . 08 

Cases and Repairs 103 . 90 

Lecture 10.00 

Rent and Caretaker 19.00 

Bookbinding 31.75 

First Annual Report 40.00 

Frames and mounting maps 16 . 00 

Second Annual Report (estimated) 80.00 

Services of Secretaries 30.00 


Balance on hand . . .' $ 41 . 38 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Secretary-Treasurer Waterloo Historical Society. 

The report was duly received and adopted. 

Election of Officers. 

On motion of J. E. Klotz, seconded by D. Forsyth, the officers 
of 1914 were re-elected to office for the year 1915. 

Constitution and By-Laws. 

On resolution passed at the first annual meeting, the Council 
of the Society prepared during the year formal Constitution and 
By-Laws, which were presented at the annual meeting and 
adopted. (They appear elsewhere in this report.) 

Mr. J. M. Scully was appointed Auditor. 


The President, W. H. Breithaupt, in his address reviewed the 
work of the Society for the past year, and gave an account of his 
visit to the meeting of the Ontario Horticultural Society at 
Ottawa, and the Lundy's Lane celebration. 

Mr. James E. Kerr, Secretary of the Gait Public Library 
Board, read a paper on the History of the Gait Public Library. 


T^ resident's Address 

In the first place I ihave to acknowledge a feeling of short- 
coming. The President's address to this Society, on the occasion 
of the Annual Meeting, should contain some addition to the 
recorded history of the County. For some time I have been 
collecting material for a comprehensive paper on the history of 
County newspapers. Owing to the difficulty and delay in getting 
all the information wanted, the paper could not be completed for 
this meeting. 

It is a satisfaction to report that interest in the general 
purposes of the Society continues and grows. There have been 
a number of valuable additions to the Society's collection, in files 
of County newspapers, in portraits and other pictures, and in 
general oibjects of historical and antiquarian interest, all as 
referred to by the Secretary and as will appear in the annual 
report. Among the photographs contributed, those of the 
Stedman deed of 1795 from the Sachems of the Six Nation Indians 
for what became Dumfries Township, the Dickson purchase of 
1816, are of particular interest. A reproduction of one of these 
photographs is to appear as an illustration in this year's annual 
report. By courtesy of the owner, Miss Dickson, of Gait, the 
parchment original is here on exhibition this evening. 

We have had the pleasure this evening to hear an interesting 
and valuable paper on the Gait Public Library, read by the author, 
Mr. James E. Kerr, of Gait. As former President of the Gait 
Mechanics Institute for a number of years, later chairman of the 
Library Board, since 1901 secretary of the Board, and now for 
the past five years secretary-treasurer, Mr. Kerr is well qualified 
to speak on his subject. 

Mr. E. W. B. Snider, of St. Jacobs, has in preparation and had 
intended to give us a paper on the History of the Grist and Saw 
Mills of Waterloo County, but is prevented by indisposition from 
being present. We expect to have Mr. Snider's paper on a future 

Dr. Klotz's address, mentioned by the Secretary, will appear 
in the annual report. While not pertaining particularly to the 
history of Waterloo County, it is of first rate Canadian historic 
interest, in being the most complete treatment of its subject as a 
whole that has yet come forth. 

Mr. Thomas Pearce, the veteran school inspector of Waterloo 
County, contributes a paper on the school history of the County, 
which will appear in the annual report. 

As delegate of this Society I attended the annual meeting of 
the Ontario Historical Society, held in Otta\\'a in June. The 
meeting was an interesting and well attended one, delegates from 
all parts of Ontario ta'king part, as also one from the Buflfalo 
Historical Society. 


Various papers were : The President's annual address by- 
President John Dearness, M. A., of London ; Pioneer Life on the 
Bay of Quinte, by W. S. Herrington, B.A., K.C., of Napanee; 
Some Old Time Newspapers and Newspaper Writers, by Dr. 
Wilfred Campbell, of Ottawa; The Valley of the Ottawa in 1613, 
by Dr. Suite, of Ottawa; Hig^hway of the Ottawa, by T. W. E. 
Sowter, of Ottawa. Mr. Sowter spoke incidentally of an Indian 
ossuary, or large burying ground, found on an island near 
Aylmer, Ont., and it was brought out that only one such ossuary 
had been found in southwestern Ontario, in Lambton County. 

One event of the meeting was the turning of the first sod for 
a monument to Samuel de Champlain, on Nepean Point. 

On tTie various occasions there were addresses by Hon. Martin 
Burrell, Minister of Agriculture, who represented the Premier; 
by Hon. George Foster, Minister of Trade and Commerce, and 
by Sir Wilfrid Laurier. 

The new President of the Ontario Historical Society is Mr. 
Clarence M. Warner, of Napanee. 

On Saturday afternoon, July 25th, three delegates of this 
Society, Sheriff Lackner, Mr. T. A. Witzel and the President, 
attended the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
battle of Lundy's Lane, on the battlefield at Niagara Falls, 

A procession with banners waving and several bands playing 
\stirring military airs marched from the town armory to the 
Lundy's Lane monument, on the battlefield. In the procession 
were military contingents representing all branches of the service, 
Veteran Associations, Chiefs of Six Nation and other Indians, 
the Ontario Historical Society and four other Historical Societies, 
the U. E. Loyalists' Association, the Mayor and Common Coun- 
cil of Niagara Falls, Ont., the Mayor and Board of Aldermen of 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., City and County School Boards, etc. 

At the monument, which, with numerous graves of men who 
fell in the battle, is in a cemetery on the slope and brow of a hill 
w-here was the centre of the battle, the monument being at the 
side of a historic church, there were commemorative and patriotic 
addresses, by Sir John M. Gibson, Lieutenant-Governor of On- 
tario, and a number of others, including several gentlemen from 
across the border, the celebration being a truly international one. 
Songs and recitations varied the proceedings. A graceful feature 
of the occasion was the decoration, with flowers and flags, of the 
monument and graves of those who fell in the battle, by a com- 
mittee of six Canadian and six American young ladies. Military 
relics of the battle and mementos of United Empire Loyalists 
and early settlers were on exhibition in a tent near the monu- 


With the exception of the Battle of New Orleans, fought, 
owing to slow travel of information in those days, after peace 
had been declared, the Battle of Lundy's Lane was practically 
the last and was the most sanguinary encounter of the war of 
1812, though on the appalling scale of the present war it would 
rank as a mere skirmish of outposts. Well may we rejoice at the 
hundred years of peace that have prevailed between two great 
countries, allowing generation after generation to grow up with 
the sane outlook engendered by continued security from fear of 
invasion ; at that great frontier of nearly four thousand miles, 
stretching across a continent, the longest continuous frontier in 
the world, without a fortification, and not in need of any. 

On the other hand the patriotism evinced by the County of 
Waterloo in the present hour of need may properly here be 
placed on record. Berlin's subscription to the Patriotic Fund for 
the relief of families of soldiers stood at last report, a few days 
ago, at $96,876.55, over $5.00 per head for every man, woman 
and child of population ; two contingents of volunteers, 56 men, 
have gone forth from here to aid in the defence of the Empire. 
The Town of Waterloo is on record with the large subscription 
of $48,000 to the Patriotic Fund; five men from Waterloo went 
with the contingent from Berlin. Other subscriptions to the 
fund were: Gait, $45,000; Preston, $5,000; Elmira, $5,700; Wil- 
mot Township, $3,000; Waterloo County Council, $2,500. 
Waterloo Township intends to make a substantial contribution 
as do other municipalities in the county, which have not yet 
taken final action. The Belgian Relief Fund is now being actively 
canvassed and will no doubt have generous contribution. Two 
contingents of volunteers, 230 men, including men from Preston 
and Hespeler, have gone from Gait. 

Our first annual report was well received, the demand for it 
being greater than we had expected, (300 copies). If we can 
afford it it might well be re-printed. It will be very desirable 
for later members of the Society to have a full set of its 
publications. This year we expect to publish 500 copies. 

The room we occupy as museum is not adequate for the 
needs of the Society. In the contemplated addition to the Berlin 
Public Library — for which grant is made and about $20,000 will 
be expended — there will be a large space in the basement which 
the Library authorities have kindly designated as available for 
the Waterloo Historical Society. This will give a room 24 feet 
by 39 feet in size, which, with little extra expense, can be made 
dry and fire-proof. 


History^ of the Gait T^uhlic Library 

^\) James E. Kerr 

I congratulate the Waterloo Historical Society on the work it is 
doing. Of the importance of that work it is not necessary for me to 
speak; I rejoice that such a good beginning has been made. The 
Society has already acquired much valuable material that will, I hope, 
be used in compiling a history of this very important and prosperous 
section of Canada. 

The story of Waterloo county will not possess, perhaps, those 
dramatic features that belong to the annals of some of our border 
counties, and yet I venture to say that the history of the settlement 
of Waterloo county will be a very interesting one. There are features 
that are, I think, peculiar to this county. Such are the advent of our 
German friends from Pennsylvania, the incidents of their journey 
hither, their heroic struggles, their ultimate success, and in the southern 
portion of the county the influx of the Scotch settlers who did 
such grand pioneer work. May I not add also that the history of our 
county will tell how men of English descent and men of German descent 
lived together, not only without quarrelling with one another, but 
grew to have such mutual respect and friendship that in course of time 
they became one people? 

The Hon. James Young has shown in his history of Gait what can 
be done in the. way of local history. Mr. Young was well qualified for 
the task by his ability and thorough knowledge of the people of whom 
he wrote. He was fortunate in that when he wrote his book the events 
which he describes were well within the memory of men then living. 
I acknowledge my indebtedness to him for much of what I am about 
to read to you in this very brief sketch of library work in Gait. 

On Christmas Day, 1836, a meeting was held at the King's Arm 
Hotel, Gait, to decide what should be done to start a public library 
in the village. Books at that period were scarce and dear in Canada 
and no paternal and benignant government was willing or indeed ever 
thought of giving financial aid to such an undertaking. It 
was suggested that the Hon. William Dickson, the only man of 
means in the community, might perhaps help. He was accordingly 
asked for a loan of $100 and he was kind enough to furnish the 
borrowers with that sum on security being given _^or it by all the 
members of the committee. We may be sure that no ephemeral 
literature found a place in this library which bore the somewhat 
formidable title of "The Gait Subscription and Circulating Library." 
The first librarian was a Mr. Hunter, after him Mr. George Lee, the 
village watchmaker, who was in turn succeeded by a Mrs. Johnston, 
widow of a former baker, and whose rooms were reached by a some- 
what precarious outside stair and formed the upper storey of a 
clapboarded store which stood at the corner of Main and Ainslie 
streets, opposite the place where the Gore Mutual building now stands. 
In familiar parlance the stock of books which were contained in two 
or three pine chests was called "Johnston's Library." 

On the day of organization fifty members were enrolled, but in a 
short time this number was increased to one hundred and fifty. No 
provision was made for a reading room, but the borrower of a book 
hurried home with his treasure to read it in the evening by the light 
of a tallow candle, the only artificial light which was then obtainable, 
unless, like young Abraham Lincoln, he was content to read by the 
fitful light of a log fire.. The juvenile reader in search for picture 
books found only wood cuts of the most primitive description, depict- 
ing, perhaps, Robinson Crusoe and his man Friday, or some Biblical 
picture to make clear to the youthful understanding the mysteries of 
Scripture truth. 


The men who took the most prominent part in organizing the first 
library in the village were: Rev. Dr. Bayne, Alexander Burnet, James 
Cowan, John Gowinlock, William Trotter, H. G. Barlow, James Harris, 
Andrew Elliott, Francis McElroy, Francis Hogg, Andrew Moscrip and 
Walter H. Benn. These men have long since passed away, but they all 
did good work in their day in laying the foundations of a progressive 
and moral community; to the older generation of Galtonians their 
names call up a crowd of memories of the days that are no more. 

In 1853, Gait having grown to be' a prosperous village and aspiring 
even then to be the "Manchester of Canada," a larger library was 
required that on the 31st of May of that year the "Circulating Library" 
was merged in the "Gait Mechanics' Institute." For the books con- 
tained in the former institution the sum of $160 was paid. Morris C, 
Lutz was the first president, and James G. Fraser the first librarian. 
Mr. Fraser had charge of the telegraph office and in this oflice space 
was found for the books. The librarian received the not very munifi- 
cent sum of $20 per annum for his services. In 1857 the "Noah's Ark," 
as the old Town Hall was facetiously called, was removed and found 
its "Mount Ararat" a little further up Market street, its former site 
being required for the new Town Hall. This very plain but substantial 
building was finished in 185 8 and accommodation was found in it for 
the "Mechanics Institute" Library, which was presided over by Mr. 
Alex. Addison, who succeeded Mr. Fraser. In its new quarters there 
was space found for a reading room, which very considerably added to 
the popularity and usefulness of the institution. The enquiring reader 
found always a sympathetic helper in Mr. Addison. Even in larger 
and better appointed libraries than that of our old Mechanics Institute, 
librarians find it difficult to suit everybody. Often the inquiries for 
books are somewhat humorous. A boy came into our library and 
wanted a book about pigs. The librarian, curious to know what he 
wanted to know about pigs, found that the boy really wanted a book 
describing the process of making pig iron. Another reader asked for a 
book called "The Little Toe." After a moment's thought the librarian 
produced the Rev. R. E. Knowles' book called "The Undertow." This 
yarn is equalled by the enquiry of a man for "Mr. Homer's Adessa." A 
boy told the librarian he wanted two books, one for himself and one 
for his father. When asked what kind of books he would like, he 
said, "Well, you see, father he likes love, but I likes fighting." Not 
often now-a-days, but in the old times frequently the remark would 
be made by a juvenile reader, "Don't want no more of them old- 
fashioned books." The ideal librarian is a person of infinite patience, 
limitless tact, and the sweetness of an angel. I will not say that Mr. 
Addison or any librarian we have ever had measured quite up to that 
standard. It is certain, however, that there has been a growing desire 
on the part of our purchasing committee to get books that will interest 
the public. The juvenile department is now a branch of library work 
and in our present library we have a children's reading room contain- 
ing newspapers and books suitable for children. 

On Mr. Addison's death in 1878, Mr. Charles Stewart became 
librarian. He was a man of literary tastes, with a strong predilection 
for poetry; indeed, he wrote some very pretty poems in a minor key 
which were published from time to time in our local papers. The 
limited income which we received made it impossible to greatly increase 
our stock, which numbered latterly about 3,000 volumes. 

In 1897 we removed to larger quarters provided for us by the Town 
Council in the upper storey of the Market Building. Mr. Stewart had 
been succeeded by his daughter. Miss Jennie Stewart. She very 
efficiently combined the duties of librarian and secretary of the Board. 
Her early death in June, 1899, caused much regret to the Board and 
to the patrons of the Library by whom her amiability, her shrewd 
sense and her diligence in the performance of her duties were much. 


appreciated. The old Circulating Library and its successor, the 
Mechanics Institute, added to their slender incomes by means of a 
course of lectures given either in the old village hall or in the New 
Connection Methodist Church, which was situated on Dickson street. 
Some of the lecturers were local men but most of them came from 
Toronto, London or other places. The lectures were well attended. 
One can imagine that amusements were few and that the young 
people attended them rather for the chance of an evening out than 
from any great thirst for knowledge. 

The hall was lit by tallow candles arranged along the walls. A 
big stove near the door was used in heating the room. In old times 
the whole village turned out to the lecture, but in later times lectures 
became unpopular and other more lively attractions drew people 
away. At present, though the moving picture shows and cheap 
theatrical entertainments draw the crowds, the lecture has regained its 
place; at least there are now a sufficiently large number of the more 
cultured people who are willing to attend a good lecture. Our library 
of late years has had several courses of lectures solely on educational 
lines and the small hall in the Library Building on the occasion of a 
lecture is generally well filled. 

In the late 90's it was felt that the Mechanics Institute had ceased 
to fulfil the expectations of its founders. One reason of its failure in 
the later period of its existence was that it had not funds to carry on 
such a library as the people required. The income including the 
government grant of about two hundred dollars, and a like sum from 
the Town Council, was only about seven hundred and fifty dollars, so 
that after paying the running expenses very little money was left for 
the purchase of books, magazines and newspapers. Steps were taken, 
therefore, to turn the Mechanics Institute into a Free Public Library. 
A popular vote was taken and a large majority favoring such a change, 
a bylaw to that effect was passed by the Town Council. The first 
officers of the organization were: President, Dr. Radford; Secretary, 
J. E. Kerr; Treasurer, Edward Radigan; the other members of the 
Board of Directors, R. Alexander, Charles Turnbull, Rev. Father Craven, 
John H. McGregor, Alex. Sloan, William Wallace, and the Mayor, 
Thomas Vair. 

The rooms in the Market Building were refitted and a better system 
of heating and lighting installed. Miss A. G. Millard, who had suc- 
ceeded Miss Stewart, was appointed librarian. The reorganization 
solved the financial difficulty as the town grant was very largely 
increased, and as the basis of the grant was soon established at the 
raj;e of one-half mill on the dollar enough money was received to buy 
all the books required. 

This municipal grant has increased from year to year and nov/, with 
the government grant added, our income is approaching four thousand 
dollars per annum. We received from Mr. Carnegie $23,000 to put up 
a suitable library. The Carnegie building was opened in August, 1905. 
The Library is entirely free to all the people of Gait. There is a Read- 
ing room, a Stack room. Reference room and Librarian's room on the 
main floor. Upstairs there is a large Children's room, a Board room and 
Lecture hall. The borrov/ers of books in the Library number nearly 
4,000. Under the efficient superintendence of Miss Millard and two as- 
sistants its influence and usefulness are rapidly extending and we feel 
that the Public Library has attained its proper place among the educa- 
tional institutions of Gait. 


Boundaries of Canada 

Dr. Otto Klotz, Dominion Astronomer, of Ottawa, gave an address 
at the Collegiate Institute, Berlin, on the above subject, on April 17^ 
1914, under the joint auspices of the Waterloo Historical Society and 
the Canadian Club. The address was illustrated by numerous maps 
thrown on the screen, showing the various boundaries and their 
evolution. The speaker cleared up many points to the large assem- 
blage, and removed erroneous impressions, such as: that the greater 
part of the State of Maine should belong to Canada by running or 
extending the 45th parallel to the sea; that the "Northwest angle" of 
the Lake of the Woods should have read in the treaty "Southwest 
angle," and prevented Minnesota from projecting her nose into Canada; 
that Great Britain has always sacrificed the interests of Canada; and 
that Canada rightly claimed sea-ports in southeastern Alaska. He 
told the story how and why the 45th and 49th parallels figure in 
our boundary line, and showed why in running the 49th parallel it was 
pulled about by the attraction of the mountains, making it a crooked 
line instead of a smooth parallel of latitude. 

In order to trace the evolution of the boundary, composed of 
various sections, it is necessary to give an historical sketch of each 
part, brief as it must be, due to the limited time at my disposal. 

Beginning with the discovery of Newfoundland by Cabot in 1497, 
who subsequently followed the coast southward to latitude 34 degrees, 
England claimed the Atlantic coast down to that parallel, as shown 
more than a century afterwards, when James I. granted in 1606 the 
first charter to the London Company for the territory lying between 
34 and 3 8 degrees, and to the Plymouth Company between 41 and 45 
degrees, leaving a neutral zone between them of 3 degrees. Here we 
have the first mention of the 45th parallel, and it has persisted to the 
present day. 

Cartier entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1534, and ascended the 
St. Lawrence the following year, that is, in 1535, thereby securing for 
France that vast waterway and the country tributary thereto. The 
two great rival nations, England and France, have each now a foothold 
on the northern half of the American continent, and for 150 years 
rivalry, war and bloodshed continued ere the complete supremacy of 
the former was established on the Plains of Abraham in 17 59. 

The charter given by Queen Elizabeth in 15 83 to Sir Walter Raleigh 
makes no mention of boundaries for his colonization scheme, which 
proved a complete failure, although the name Virginia, in honor of the 
Queen, has come down to us from that time. 

Copyright Canada 1914 by the Waterloo Historical Society 

The real beginning of trouble between England and France soon 
followed the granting of a charter by Henry IV., King of France, to 
De Monts for the seacoast and territory lying between 40 and 46 
degrees. De Monts erected rude forts at the mouth of the St. Croix 
and at Port Royal on the Bay of Fundy, now known as Annapolis 
Royal. It will be observed that this latter charter was overlapped by 
the charter to the Plymouth Company given three years later, and 
already referred to. Following chronologically, we may mention the 
advent in 1609 of Henry Hudson — an Englishman — in the river bearing 
his name, whereby the Dutch, in whose service Hudson was, established 
themselves later in New Netherlands and founded New Amsterdam, 
now New York. The first encounter between the English and French 
took place in 1614 when Argal drove the French from Port Royal. No 
place in America suffered more from the vicissitudes of war than did 
Port Royal, for many times it was taken only to be ceded again by 
treaty until in 1710 it, with Acadia, permanently fell to England. The 
French had called their possessions New France, and the Dutch theirs 
New Netherlands, while New England first appears in the charter, 
another charter, given by James I. in 1620 to the Plymouth Company, 
wherein their limits are extended from 40 degrees to 48 degrees. The 
following year James I. gave to his friend Sir William Alexander 
(afterwards Lord Stirling) a charter covering "Nova Scotia" or New 
Scotland, as the territory was called. This charter formed an 
important part in future boundary discussions. By it the boundary 
ascended the St. Croix river to its remotest spring to the west, and 
thence to the nearest bay, river or stream emptying into Canada's 
great river (the St. Lawrence) and thence along it to the sea. There 
were two inconsistencies in this boundary; in the first place it en- 
croached on the territory of the New Plymouth Company, and in the 
second place it included the south shore of the St. Lawrence which 
undoubtedly was rightly claimed by the French. However, the 
Plymouth Company relinquished its claim on the area common with 
the grant to Alexander. In 1628 Sir William sent out Sir David Kirk 
and he took Port Royal again. In the same year the council of the 
Plymouth Company made a grant to the Governor and Company of 
Massachusetts Bay. We find the English colonies on the Atlantic 
coast growing more rapidly than the French to the north of them, and 
hostilities are chronic if not continuous. Beside the occupation by 
the English on the Atlantic coast, the Dutch occupied, as already 
noted. New Netherlands, and similarly a New Sweden was founded in 
1638 on the Delaware, which, however, was later absorbed in the 
grant to William Penn in 1681. 

These more southerly English possessions have little relation, save 
indirectly, with the boundary between the English and French pos- 
sessions, or as we recognize it now the boundary of Canada, and more 
particularly the boundary of the original Nova Scotia, for New 
Brunswick did not become a separate province till 1784. It was the 
growth of New England and its steady pressure northward that 
crowded the French possessions which eventually became English. 
Then the boundary line became one between two English possessions, 
of which we shall presently speak. By the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 
Great Britain was confirmed in the possession of Hudson's Bay, New- 
foundland and Acadia. To France remained Cape Breton, with the 
strongly fortified Louisburg, and the St. Lawrence, together with the 
country claimed by exploration, extending through the Great Lakes 
and down the Mississippi. At the moment we are only concerned 
with the New England boundary, and the French possessions in the 
West do not enter here into the discussion. Louisburg fell in 1745 
before Warren and Pepperell, to be restored to France by the Treaty 
of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, only to be retaken, and for good, ten years 


later, by Wolfe. This was followed up the next year, 1759, by the 
historic battle on the Plains of Abraham when Canada became a 
British possession. We must here impress upon your attention the 
position of affairs after the Treaty of Paris? in 1763, which closed the 
war with France. The whole of the American continent northward 
from Florida, which belonged to Spain, and east of the Alleghany 
mountains belonged to Great Britain. All boundary questix)ns were 
questions between provinces, all under one crown. The boundary line 
or limit of 45 degrees mentioned in the new Plymouth charter of 
1606, now began to loom large on the horizon; it had significance 
which can scarcely be said for it at that early date, — two years before 
the founding of Quebec. New England at the time of the Treaty of 
Paris included the organized provinces of Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, Rhode Island and Connecticut. The province of New York was 
also organized. But a few years after the treaty we find the governor 
of Canada corresponding with the governor of the province of New 
York with reference to the survey of their common boundary line, the 
45th parallel, and this line was run by Collins & Valentine in 1771- 
1773, a boundary line between two British provinces, let it be 
remembered, and the boundary line then run is our boundary line 
today. So we see that the northern limit of the Plymouth Company 
as given in the charter by James I. in 1606, although precise in words, 
yet intensely vague as to its position in the wilds of America at that 
time, became the boundary line between provinces evolving out of 
that Plymouth Company and another province acquired by conquest. 
It is an historic boundary, quite naturally. This part of our 
boundary line was run and defined before the American Revolution, 
before there was an United States. The disposition of the North- 
eastern Boundary came later, i.e., of the Maine boundary. 

It is here necessary to call to mind the conditions and course of 
events during the latter half of the 18th century. Prior to the crown- 
ing event on the Plains of Abraham, the English were in possession 
of the more southerly part of the eastern North American continent, 
while the French adjoined them to the north. The English on their part 
were ever pressing the French and pushing their possessions and 
boundaries northward. In 1759 the French were driven from this 
part of the continent, and the whole country from Georgia to Hudson's 
Bay came under the British Crown. In 177 5 the provinces or states 
that had grown out of the Plymouth Company, the London Company, 
and others, thirteen in all, revolted and declared their independence, 
which was acceded to by the definitive treaty of 17 83. Conditions 
were now exactly reversed. Great Britain now occupied the position, 
as far as territory is concerned, that France formerly occupied; and the 
United States the position that Great Britain had occupied at the time 
of the Treaty of Ryswick. Is it not very natural, most natural, that 
the United States claimed as their northeastern boundary, the very 
same boundary that England had claimed against the French, the 
boundary line that had been specified, although vaguely we will admit, 
in the charter to Sir William Alexander in 1621, a boundary line that 
runs up the St. Croix to its remotest spring to the west. And that is, 
broadly speaking, our boundary line today. Of its deviation we shall 
speak later. The point that it is desired to make here is, to correct 
the very common and erroneous idea among Canadians, that if it hadn't 
been for the stupidity of some British oflBcial or officials the greater 
part of Maine would not have been lost to us. Utter nonsense, we 
never had any claim to Maine or the province of Massachusetts Bay 
of which it originally formed a part. The notion held by some that 
the 45th parallel should have been extended eastward to the sea as 
the boundary line simply shows an unfamiliarity of historic facts. 

We must be brief with the remaining story of the Northeastern 
Boundary. The subject has been well and adequately dealt with in a 

monograph by Professor W. P. Ganong, given in the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Canada for 1901. We shall quote a few lines of 
the definitive treaty of 1783 between Great Britain and the United 
States, pertaining to this part of the boundary, which is described 
as "from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz. that angle which 
is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of the Saint 
Croix River to the Highlands; along the said Highlands which divide 
those rivers which empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence, 
from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwestermost 
head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that 
river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; " 

This seems a pretty clear and definite description, provided the 
geographical features referred to existed, were easily identified on the 
ground. This, unfortunately, perhaps fortunately for Canada, was 
not the case. At that time the best map of the eastern part of North 
America was the Mitchell map of 17 55, and for that time a good map 
it was. There were no "highlands," in the sense of elevated, hilly 
ground. The provisional treaty of 1782 gives the same description as 
above, and was agreed upon by Richard Oswald, British Commissioner, 
and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, repre- 
senting the United States. There is now in the British Museum the 
famous "Red Line Map." It was formerly in the possession of King 
George III., and shows the boundary under discussion in a heavy red 
line, along v/hich are written the words "Boundary as described by 
Mr. Oswald." The map is a Mitchell map and the red line follows the 
heads of the rivers and streams falling into the St. Lawrence from the 
northwestermost head of the Connecticut river to the line due north 
from the source of the St. Croix. This map undoubtedly shows where 
Oswald thought the "highlands" should be. It was fortunate for 
Canada that this map was lost for over half a century. This boundary 
question became from year to year more acute, particularly owing to 
the lumbering industry on the Aroostook and upper St. John, carried 
on by citizens of the two countries, until war was in the air. The 
Treaty of Ghent, 1814, failed to settle the question. Then in 1827 a 
convention was concluded, whereby the dispute v/as to be referred to 
arbitration. The King of the Netherlands was the arbitrator chosen 
and in 1831 he rendered his award, whereby Great Britain was awarded 
about 4100 square miles, or about one-third of the territory in dispute. 
The award was a compromise, and not a decision, which was wanted,^- 
whether the contention of Great Britain or the contention of the 
United States was right and valid. Hence the United States promptly 
protested the award. Negotiations were then carried on which culmi- 
nated in the Ashburton-Webster, or Washington Treaty of 1842, 
whereby this troublesome boundary question was finally disposed of, 
and by which Great Britain secured about 900 square miles more than 
had been awarded her by the King of the Netherlands. Nearly three- 
quarters of a century have passed since this Gordian knot has been 
cut, and we may speak well of the labors of Lord Ashburton, for we 
got more than we were entitled to. There was no stupidity in British 

Before proceeding westward with our boundary line, we shall turn 
briefly to the Labrador boundary. Radisson and Groseillier, two 
French traders, had been successful fur traders in the territory 
adjoining Hudson's Bay to the south, but the toll exacted from them 
by the governor at Quebec becoming exorbitant, they proceeded to 
England, and laid plans for an expedition to Hudson's Bay before King 
Charles II. The result was that a charter was granted in 1670 by 
the King to Prince Rupert and associates to trade in the country 
whose waters empty into Hudson's Bay and Straits. The Company 
"of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay" then formed, 


has come down to us as the Hudson's Bay Company. This charter 
immediately involved questions of boundary with the French, but did 
not conflict with any other charter previously granted by England, as 
none of the latter extended so far to the north. The French lost no 
time in attacking the Company and taking their posts. The Treaty of 
Ryswick, 1697, left the rival claims unsettled; but by the Treaty of 
Utrecht, 1713, Hudson's Bay and Straits were restored to Great Britain, 
and a Commission appointed to determine the limits of the Hudson's 
Bay territory and the places appertaining to the French. The com- 
missaries did not arrive at a settlement. Commissary Bladen had 
instructions to claim a boundary from Grimington on the Labrador 
coast through Lake Mistassini to latitude 49 degrees N., and thence 
due west along the 49th parallel. Here it must be noted that this 
is the origin of our 49th parallel, which we have today as a boundary 
line extending from the Lake of the Woods to the Pacific. The French 
claimed the boundary line to begin at the entrance of Hudson's Straits, 
at Cape Chidley, and thence southwest close to and around James's 
Bay, the southern extremity of Hudson's Bay, so as to take in their 
post at Lake Nemiskau on the Rupert river. The contention between 
the British and French in the above claims were never settled, instead, 
they were wiped out on the Plains of Abraham in 17 59. In 176 3 by 
Royal Proclamation the Government of Quebec was erected, and its 
limits defined as follows: "Bounded on the Labrador coast by the 
River St. John, and from thence by a line drawn from the head of 
that river through the Lake St. John to the south end of the Lake 
Nipissing; from whence the said line crossing the River St. Lawrence 
and the Lake Champlain in 45 degrees of north latitude, passes along 
the high lands which divide the rivers that empty themselves into the 
said River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the sea; and also 
along the north coast of the Baye des Chaleurs and the coast of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Rosieres; and from thence, crossing the 
mouth of the River St. Lawrence by the west end of the Island of 
Anticosti, "terminates at the aforesaid River St. John." The River St. 
John spoken of here is a small river on the north shore of the St. 
Lawrence, and otherwise little known. 

It will be observed that Quebec as bounded above was of com- 
paratively small area. One of the disturbing features of the above 
restrictions in extent was that the lower St. Lawrence, or north shore 
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, did not belong to Quebec, although 
traversed and exploited by their fisher folk, but was assigned to 
Newfoundland. To allay dissatisfaction which had arisen through the 
Royal Proclamation of 1763, "The Quebec Act" of 1774 was passed, 
which extended the boundaries southward to the Ohio, westward to 
the Mississippi, northward to Rupert's land, and eastward to the 
Atlantic. Quebec was now the possessor of Labrador. Whatever 
boundary line might have theoretically existed between Labrador and 
Quebec was wiped out by the Act of 1774. But Parliament would not 
let it be wiped out for very long, for in 1809 by an Imperial Act 
Anticosti and the north shore from the above river St. John to the 
Atlantic and along its coast to Cape Chidley was re-transferred to 
Newfoundland. This brought out the old complaint of the Quebec 
fisher folk about the north shore. And this was rectified by the 
Imperial Act of 1825 when the north shore from the River St. John 
to Anse Sablon, just inside the Straits of Belle Isle, together with 
Anticosti was re-transferred to Quebec, leaving the Atlantic coast 
strip of Labrador to Newfoundland. This is the condition of affairs 
today. The boundary question between Canada and Newfoundland 
is: where is the rear or west limit of Labrador, and the burning point 
centres about Hamilton Inlet, which extends so far inland. The 
simplest solution would be the union of Newfoundland and Canada, a 


union that would undoubtedly be in the interests of Britain's Oldest 
Colony as well as of the Dominion. 

We shall now return where we left off with the Northeastern 
boundary, and find ourselves at the 45th parallel. This we follow 
according to the Treaty of 1783 to the St. Lawrence, up it, through the 
Great Lakes to the western shore of Lake Superior. Up to this point 
from the 45th parallel there has been no serious difficulty in inter- 
preting the position of the boundary line. Trouble begins when we 
proceed beyond Lake Superior, and this unfortunately arose from 
inaccuracies of the Mitchell map. For a proper understanding it may 

be well to quote here a few lines of the Treaty of 1783 "Thence 

through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Philippeaux 
to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and 
the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to 
the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said Lake to the 
most northwestern point thereof, and from thence on a due west 
course to the River Mississippi " 

The object was to reach the most westerly head of the waters of 
the St. Lawrence, and this was supposed to be reached in the Lake of 
the Woods. Unfortunately the inaccuracies of the map cost us the 
possession of what is now Duluth and the northeastern part of Minne- 
sota. There really existed no Long Lake, and the Lake of the Woods 
does not discharge into Lake Superior but into Lake Winnipeg. Hence, 
if the geographical features had been known the boundary line would 
have continued to the extreme western end of Lake Superior, and 
ascended the St. Louis River to its source, and thence due west to 
the Mississippi. However, we must adhere to the treaty, and reach 
the Lake of the Woods after crossing a narrow "height of land " 
separating the waters of Lake Superior from those of Lake Winnipeg. 
Before taking the course through the Lake of the Woods, let us look 
at Mitchell's map, the governing map of that day. You will see that 
the lake, an elongated expansion, extends in a general northwest- 
southeast direction, in continuation of the general trend of the river 
discharging it. The most distant, the farthest point of the waters of 
the St. Lawrence was without doubt, by looking at the map, the 
"most northwestern point" of the lake. There was no mistake made 
in saying or writing "northwestern" instead of "southwestern." The 
shape of the lake, as shown, admits of speaking of northwestern but 
scarcely of southwestern. So this myth of mistake in writing is 
exploded too. Since we have now an accurate survey of the lake, the 
position of the "Northwest Angle" as such is not so obvious. 

Boundary lines on paper look so pretty and simple. So was the 
boundary line "thence on a due west course to the River Mississippi." 
Unfortunately, the Mississippi was not there, but instead its source 
was about a 100 miles due south whence we had just started to go 
west. Slowly these geographical inaccuracies came to light. Before 
going further with the boundary, it is necessary to refer to some 
events in the history of the United States. By exploration France held 
claim to the valley of the Mississippi, and La Salle named it "Louisiana" 
after Louis XIV., the reigning monarch. With the fall of Quebec in 
1759, Great Britain obtained the French possessions as far west as 
the Mississippi, but not beyond. In 1762 France ceded "Louisiana," 
the part west of the Mississippi, to Spain. By the secret Treaty of 
San Udefonso Spain in 1800 promises to retrocede to France Louisiana, 
which was subsequently carried out. Then in 1803 Napoleon — in vio- 
lation of his pledge to Spain not to alienate the province — sold it to 
the United States for $12,000,000. The western boundary of this 
territory was vague, but claimed up to the western watershed of the 
Mississippi, that is up to the Rocky Mountains. When the definitive 


treaty of 1783 was signed the United States only extended to the 
Mississippi, that is, they covered the British claim up to that time. 
But at the time of the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, and the Treaty of 
London, 1818, the United States had expanded to the Rocky Mountains, 
so that in the negotiations about the boundary beyond the Lake of 
the Woods cognizance is taken of this. By Article VH. of the former 
treaty commissioners were to determine the latitude and longitude of 
the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods. By this time 
it was known that a due west line from the Lake of the Woods Avould 
not intersect the Mississippi, although the exact geographical position 
of the most northwesternmost point was undetermined, further than 
that it was not very far from the 49th parallel, that parallel which 
England over a century before had set as the southern limit of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. Hence the description of the boundary on- 
ward as given in Article IL of the latter (1818) treaty becomes more 
intelligible. It reads as follows: "It is agreed that a line drawn from 
the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, along the 
forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, or if the said point shall not be 
in the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, then that a line drawn 
from the said point due north or south as the case may be, until the 
said line shall intersect the said parallel of north latitude, and from 
the point of such intersection due west along and with the said 
parallel shall be the line of demarcation between the territories of 
the United States, and those of His Britannic Majesty, and that the 
said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of 
the United States, and the southern boundary of the territories of His 
Britannic Majesty from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Moun- 
tains." Stony Mountains we now call Rocky Mountains. By a mere 
chance the line ran south, and Minnesota projects a watery corner 
apparently into Canada. If it would have been necessary to run north 
instead of south the same distance to get to the 49th parallel we 
might regret having lost a strip 24 miles wide across the continent. 
Perhaps it was better to run south to get to the 49th parallel, although 
it looks to some a little queer, this little white patch on our Canadian 
maps in the southwest corner of the Lake of the Woods. The boundary 
line hereabouts, needs no apologist on either side, it was perfectly 

We continue then the boundary from the Lake of the Woods 
westward along the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains, and here 
for the present the line stops, for the territory beyond was still in 
dispute. By Article III. of the treaty of 1818 it was agreed that the 
country be free and open to both parties for the term of ten years. 
Before proceeding farther westward with the boundary, we must pick 
up the thread of history, this time on the Pacific coast, and learn what 
had been done in discovery, in exploration, and in occupation; so that 
we may have a fair perspective of the claims of the contending nations. 
The historic survey must necessarily be brief and circumscribed. Al- 
though Balboa was the first to sight the Pacific in 1513 from Darien, 
Drake was the first to proceed up the coast in 1579 to about latitude 
43 degrees. It was nearly a century later before the Spaniard Perez 
reached as far as 54 degrees. Then follow the memorable explorations 
of the world's greatest navigator — ^Captain Cook, who in 1778 explored 
the Pacific coast northward from 43 degrees, through Bering Straits 
to latitude 70 degrees. Trouble arose between the Spanish and British 
on the Pacific coast, and by the Nootka Convention of 1790, Spain wos 
practically eliminated as far as territory now under discussion is con- 
cerned. The man that left an imperishable monument on the Pacific 
coast by the accuracy of his survey work was Captain George Vancou>'er, 
who had served under Captain Cook. Vancouver's work covered the 
years 1792-3-4. It is strange that Vancouver missed the discovery of 
the mouth of the Columbia, which discolors the water of the ocean 


for miles and miles. This was reserved for the American, Captain 
Gray, in 1792, in his ship "Columbia," whence the name of the river. 
This discovery was one of the important points upon which later the 
United States based their claim to the country which the river drains. 
Captain Gray did not ascend the river, which, however, was subsequently 
done by Lieut. Broughton, under Vancouver's instructions. Mackenzie, 
the discoverer of the great river bearing his name, in 1793 penetrated 
through the interior of the continent, in behalf of the Northwest 
Company, the great rival of the Hudson's Bay Company, to the Pacific 
in about latitude 52 degrees. President Jefferson followed up the 
"Louisiana" purchase by sending an expedition under Lewis and Clark 
(1804-1806) to explore the territory north of the then Spanish 
territory of California and west of the Rocky Mountains, the "Oregon 
country" as it was afterwards called. To digress for a moment. In 
1778 Carver published in London a book "Travels throughout interior 
parts of North America," in which the stream or undiscovered stream, 
"Oregon," is referred to. This name does not again appear in print 
until 1817 when we find it in Bryant's poem, "Thanatopsis." Lewis 
and Clark penetrated through the Rocky Mountains and descended the 
Columbia, whereby the United States added another claim, and a strong 
claim, to the territory subsequently in dispute. In 1808 Astor founded 
the American Fur Company, and three years later the Pacific Fur Com- 
pany, a branch of the former, which was followed by the founding of 
Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia. 

The Northwest Company was busy with exploration too in the 
interest of their fur trade. In 1808 Simon Fraser descends the river 
that now bears his name, to the sea; and similarly David Thompson, 
who has also a river to his name, descends in 1811 the Columbia to 
the Pacific. We see how year by year British and American claims are 
being made by exploration and occupation. A blast of the war of 
1812 even reached the Pacific coast. In 1813 Astoria was discreetly 
sold to the Northwest Company and a month later was taken possession 
of by a British vessel and its name changed to Fort George, but was 
restored in 1818. In the following year Spain waived her claim to 
the north of 42 degrees in favor of the United States. The bitter rivalry 
that had existed for many years between the Hudson's Bay Company 
and the Northwest Company, and which had cost many lives, was 
brought to a close by the amalgamation or absorption of the latter 
company by the former. The fur trade was now vigorously pushed in 
the far west, and in 1824 Chief Factor J. McLaughlin built Fort Van- 
couver on the lower Columbia, near the mouth of the Willamette, — 
and this was for years the centre of trade and of authority, which the 
Hudson's Bay Company knew so well how to wield. Russia had been 
active on the northwest coast of America for many years and of which 
we shall speak more in detail when we come to the Alaska boundary. 
It will suffice here simply to state that under Article III. of the Con- 
vention of 1824 between Russia and the United States, Russia 
renounced all claims to territory south of 54 degrees, 40 minutes. Up 
to this time and for a few years more the strongest claim of Great 
Britain was that of occupation, for there were very few Americans in 
the territory. As the ten years of free and joint occupancy guaranteed 
under Article III of the treaty of 1818 were drawing to a close without 
a settlement having been made, the Convention of 1827 extended the 
provisions of Article III. indefinitely, but with the right after twelve 
months' notice by either party to annul and abrogate them. The advent 
of four Indian chiefs from the Oregon country in St. Louis in 1832 
stirred the missionary zeal for a new field of labor. The fertility of 
the Columbia valley, the wealth of the forests, the salubrity of climate, 
became known in the east, and slowly a stream of immigration set in. 
As early as 1841 the Americans in Oregon began to feel the need of 
some form of civil government, other than that meted out by the 


Hudson's Bay Company, so that two years later we find a provisional 
government organized. Year by year the American immigration 
increased, till in 1845 some 3,000 arrived from the Missouri and 
Mississippi valleys. The Americans had undoubtedly possession of 
the territory now, more specifically of the Columbia valley, and it was 
obvious that the day of settlement, of adjustment of rival claims was 
at hand. Matters were somewhat aggravated by the democratic slogan 
in the presidential campaign of 1844 of "Fifty-four Forty or Fight." 
This meant up to the southern limit of the Russian possessions referred 
to in the Convention of 1824. The slogan served the democratic party 
well, for Polk was elected president. Well, they didn't get fifty-four 
forty nor did they fight. To the former the Americans had absolutely 
no claim; and for the latter common sense stood them in good stead. 

Negotiations were now set on foot, which culminated in the Wash- 
ington treaty of 1846, whereby the 49th parallel was continued 
westward from the Rocky Mountains "to the middle of the channel 
which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island; and thence 
southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, 
to the Pacific Ocean." 

Was "Oregon" lost to Canada by British diplomacy or the lack of 
diplomacy? One unbiased and seized of all the facts, must answer 
the question in the negative. Another and similar question might 
however be put, and that is. Was British Columbia saved to Canada 
by British diplomacy? And here the answer is undoubtedly in the 

Scarcely had this last treaty been signed when differences arose as to 
the identity of "the middle of the channel which separates the continent 
from Vancouver's Island," the British claiming the eastern channel, 
Rosario Strait, one that had been used by the Hudson's Bay Company 
since 1825, while the United States claimed the western channel. 
Canal de Haro. Finally by the treaty of 1871, under Article XXXIV., 
the respective claims were "submitted to the arbitration and award 
of His Majesty the Emperor of Germany," who shall decide "which of 
those claims are most in accordance with the true interpretations of 
the treaty of June 15, 1846." The arbitrator in 1872 rendered the 
award in favor of the contention presented by the United States for 
Haro Strait. 

We have now followed the international boundary line across the 
continent, from the mouth of the St. Croix river on the Atlantic to 
the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the Pacific. 

There yet remains the Alaska boundary, so fresh in your memory. 

There was a time when Russia courted the favor of China to trade. 
When the Cossacks had pushed their way across Siberia, and Russia 
found herself on the Pacific a new field of enterprise was opened to 
her — and that was the fur trade. In the first place, stood the sea-otter, 
furnishing probably the most beautiful fur of any animal. This, 
together with the subsequently discovered fur seal of Bering Sea, 
furnished the key for unlocking the commercial gates at Kiakhta, the 
border town and barter place between China and Siberia. In 1728 
Vitus Bering began his explorations which led to the discovery of 
Bering Straits and of the extreme northwest of America. Expeditions 
in search of furs in this direction date from 1743, and were undertaken 
by the Russians. The incentive for exploration on the part of the 
Russians was the increase and extension of the fur-trade. In 1778 
Captain Oook made surveys, extending through Bering Straits, from 
which the first approximately accurate chart was published. About 
the same time Portlock, Dixon & Meares visited Cook's Inlet. During 
the years 1792, 1793, 1794 Vancouver made minute and memorable 


surveys extending from California to Cook's Inlet, including the British 
Columbia coast and that of southeastern Alaska. At the time the 
Russians were most energetically prosecuting the fur-trade and were 
alive to the intrusion of other nations into territory that they were 
bound to maintain as their own. The Empress Catherine II. had 
granted in 17 88 a charter to Shelikof for the American trade, but 
there were other traders and companies in the field, resulting in 
destructive rivalry. A strong hand and an experienced man were 
necessary to bring order out of anarchy, and this man was found in 
1790 by Shelikof in Baranof, the man who finally established the 
Russian empire on the North American continent. 

In 1797 a consolidation of various companies was effected; the new 
organization being known as the Russian-American Company, which 
obtained a charter in 1799 from the Emperor Paul, granting it the 
exclusive right to all the territory and the resources of water and land 
in the new Russian possessions, including Kamchatka, the district of 
Okhotsk, and the Kurile Islands. This charter was granted for a term 
of 20 years, afterwards twice renewed for similar periods. It marks 
an epoch in the history of Alaska, which from that time until the 
transfer of the country to the United States became identical with 
that of the Russian-American Company. The company stood in high 
favor in court circles; even the Emperor and members of the imperial 
family had interests therein. Some prophesied a prosperity comparable 
with that of the English East India Company, while others dreamed 
of an annexation of Japan and portions of China, as well as the whole 
American coast down to the Gulf of California. But such was not to be. 

In 1821 Russia attempted by ukase to exclude navigators from 
Bering Sea. This was promptly protested by Great Britain and by 
the United States, whereupon a convention was made with the latter 
In 1824, and with the former in 1825. In the convention with the 
United States, Russia agreed not to form any establishments south of 
the parallel of 54 degrees, 40 minutes, nor the United States any 
north of that parallel; while in the convention with Great Britain a 
definite boundary line between the possessions of the two countries 
was described. A half a century afterwards the meaning and inter- 
pretation of the description of this boundary line became a burning 
question, reaching almost a conflagration at the climax and moment 
of final settlement. The line of demarcation is described as follows: 
"Commencing from the southermost point of the island called Prince 
of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 
minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and 133rd degree of 
west longitude (meridian of Greenwich), the said line shall ascend to 
the north along the channel called Portland Channel, as far as the 
point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north 
latitude; from this last mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall 
follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as 
far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude, 
(of the same meridian; ) and finally, from the said point of intersection, 
the said meridian line of the 141st degree in its prolongation as far as 
the Frozen Ocean." 

It is somewhat surprising that no comment was made on this 
important Convention by the British Press. Neither The Times, 
Chronicle, Edinburgh Review, Quarterly Review, Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Blackwood's Review, nor the London Magazine makes any 
reference to it. The Annual Register for 1825 publishes the Conven- 
tion, but without comment. 

Undoubtedly Vancouver's chart was the one consulted by the 
negotiators of the Convention, and from it, showing a continuous 


range of mountains running behind all the inlets and approximately 
parallel to the coast, the intent of the framers of the Convention 
becomes obvious to any unbiased mind. 

At the time Great Britain had little interest in territorial possession 
of this part (Alaska) of the northwest coast, as shown in the 
instructions of Dec. 8, 1824, by the Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, Rt. Hon. George Canning, to the Plenipotentiary, Mr. Stratford 

Canning, wherein occurs "It is comparatively indifferent to 

us whether we hasten or postpone all questions respecting the limits 
of territorial possession on the continent of America, but the preten- 
tions of the Russian Ukase of 1821, to exclusive dominion over the 
Pacific, could not continue longer unrepealed without compelling us 
to take some measure of public and effectual remonstrance against 

it We negotiate about territory to cover the remonstrance 

upon principle." 

The British who were interested in the territory and the boundary 
line were the Hudson's Bay Company, who were at the time pushing 
their trade in the "Oregon" country. By Article VI. of the above 
Convention the British "shall forever enjoy the right of navigating 
freely, and without any hindrance whatever, all the rivers and streams 
which, in their course towards the Pacific Ocean, may cross the line 
of demarcation upon the line of coast described in Article III of the 
present Convention." By Article VII. the vessels of both nations were 
permitted for the space of ten years to frequent all the inland seas 
and gulfs on the coast. When these ten years had expired Baron 
Wrangell, Governor of the Russian-American Company, issued a notice 
warning foreign vessels from trading in Russian territorial waters. 
This led to an encounter with the Hudson's Bay Company, which made 
preparations for establishing a post 10 marine leagues up the Stikine, 
and which they had a perfect right to do. After some years of 
negotiations in which the British Government took a part, the Hudson's 
Bay Company made an agreement, Feb. 6, 1839, with the Russian- 
American Company, whereby the former leased from the latter the 
coast (exclusive of islands) between Cape Spencer and latitude 54 
degrees 40 minutes, for a term of ten years, for a specified con- 
sideration. It may be pointed out here that the Hudson's Bay Company 
recognized and acknowledged by this lease Russian sovereignty of a 
continuous strip and coast line over the territory in question; and 
naturally so, for the Russians were and had been occupying or trading 
on it, notably at the head of Lynn Canal with the Chilkats. This 
lease was afterwards renewed. In discussing and protesting the 
interference of Russia with the Hudson's Bay Company on the Stikine, 
Lord Palmerston of the Foreign Office wrote on Nov. 13, 1835, to His 
Excellency Lord Durham a long letter, in which occurs: ". . . . The 
obvious meaning of the Sixth Article of the Treaty is that British 
settlers should have the opportunity of conveying to the sea the produce 
of their industry, notwithstanding that the coast itself is in the 
possession of Russia. . , ." 

This certainly leaves no doubt that a continuous strip was recog- 
nized by Great Britain as belonging to Russia. The Russian possessions 
in America were becoming a burden to the home government and in 
1867 Alaska was sold to the United States for $7,200,000, — a bagatelle 
as we recognize it to-day. 

Up to this time and for years afterwards all maps, whether 
Russian, British, German, French, American or Canadian, showing 
that part of the northwest coast of America, invariably showed a 
continuous strip representing what we now call southeastern Alaska^ 
The Russians had been trading along this strip as a Russian possession; 


the Hudson's Bay Company, their rival, had leased it for fur-trading 
purposes, for which it was essential to have access to the inlets and 
heads of inlets to meet the Indians. These interested parties never 
questioned the continuity of this strip, for any other interpretation 
would have been utterly at variance with the condition obtaining, with 
the trade as carried on along the strip. Official maps, British and 
Canadian, school-books, all showed the continuous strip and a boundary 
line running at some distance behind all the inlets and channels, 
irrespective of their length. The negotiations and transfer of Alaska, 
in which the boundary described is a replica of the Convention with 
Great Britain in 1825, were concluded without the knowledge of Great 
Britain. However, the British ambassador at St. Petersburgh said 
that if the territory had been offered to Great Britain for purchase he 
felt assured that it would not have been bought. And in this opinion 
he was supported by the Foreign Office. This attitude, although it 
did not alter matters, we must regret. The sale of the territory was 
primarily for economic reasons, yet political reasons, into which we 
cannot here enter, were involved. 

The transfer of Alaska took place in 1867, the year of Confederation 
and the birth of the Dominion of Canada. British Columbia, the most 
interested province in the Alaskan boundary, joined the Dominion in 
1871, and soon began urging the delimitation of the boundary. Of 
the rivers which crossed the boundary line the Stikine was at that 
time the only one that served as a route of communication with 
Canadian territory, so we find in 1877 Joseph Hunter commissioned by 
Canada to ascertain with approximate accuracy the boundary line on 
that river. By joining the summits of the mountains by a line parallel 
to the coast, he found the boundary there to be about 20 miles from 
the coast. Up to this time there was no question of the continuity of 
the "strip" along the coast. It was taken for granted. To question 
the continuity was reserved for a later day. The Alaska boundary 
"dispute" had its inception in 1884. From that time onward the 
dispute grew with the passing years. • Under a convention of 1892 a 
joint survey by Canada and the United States was made of the area 
adjacent to the boundary line. The Joint High Commission of 1898 
took up this boundary question, but was unable to reach a definite 
agreement. The question became somewhat acute owing to the 
discovery of gold in the Klondike, to which the easiest access was by 
way of the head of Lynn Canal, which Canada had now claimed as 
being within Canadian territory. Negotiations were continued, and 
finally a convention was signed in January 1903 whereby the matter 
was referred to a tribunal of six impartial jurors, to whom seven 
questions were submitted for judicial consideration. By far the most 
important of these questions was the one pertaining to the interpreta- 
tion of "the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the 
mountains situated parallel to the coast"; or in the event that such 
mountains are more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the 
boundary "shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the 
coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues 
therefrom." In short, the question meant, whether the "strip" is 
continuous or not, — whether Canada rightly claimed the heads of 
some of the inlets, notably Lynn Canal with Skagway at its head. In 
the tribunal Great Britain was represented by Lord Alverstone, Sir 
Louis Jette, and Mr. A. B. Aylesworth; and the United States by Hon. 
Elihu Root, Hon. Senator Lodge, and Hon. Senator Turner. The 
tribunal sat at London and voluminous documentary evidence was 
submitted to it. The award was signed on Oct. 20, 1903, by Alverstone, 
Root, Lodge and Turner, and confirmed the contention of a continuous 
strip, the boundary line passing around all of the inlets. The award 
was accompanied by a map based on the joint survey of 1893-1895, 
on which the course of the boundary line was shown. For the point 


of commencement Cape Muzon was unanimously agreed upon. The 
majority of the tribunal awarded the insignificant islands of Sitklan 
and Kannaghunut at the entrance of Portland Canal to the United 
States. This latter award, although of no practical import, is 
thoroughly inexplicable, especially to one who has sailed over every 
foot covered by Vancouver in the waters designated by him as Portland 
Canal or channel. 

When the award was published a feeling of intense resentment 
and indignation spread over Canada. Many harsh words were said of 
Lord Alverstone, and that again the interests of Canada had been 
sacrificed by Great Britain. 

Ten years have passed since the award was rendered, and one 
can review calmly and it is hoped unbiased the decision. A future 
historian who will write a monograph on the Alaska boundary, replete 
as is the one on the New Brunswick boundary, will undoubtedly show 
that Canada got all that was her due in the Alaska award, with the 
exception of those two small rocky islands referred to above. 

An hour and a half is a short time to review the boundaries of 
Canada, some 5,000 miles in length. I have but skimmed over the 
subject, but have attempted to bring out some salient points, and 
correct current and common misinformation on our boundaries. 


Waterloo School House 1820 
Removed to Waterloo Park 1894 

School History, Waterloo County and Berlin 

By Thomas *Pearce 

1802 to 1870. 

Tliat desire to have their children receive a good, practical 
education, which is a marked characteristic of the inhabitants of this 
county today, manifested itself just as strongly in the pioneers in the 
early part of the last century. 

Prior to 1842 all schools were voluntary. They were kept in private 
houses, meeting houses, abandoned dwellings, unused shops or under 
any available and convenient shelter. On in the 20's and 30's an 
occasional small log schoolhouse was built and paid for by private 
subscription. Schools were kept open during the winter months only. 
The teachers were mostly itinerants — ex-soldiers or unsuccessful 
tradesmen — who were engaged in other occupations the rest of the 
year. Their scholarship was unknown, examinations and certificates 
being unheard of. 

The people of Waterloo township have the honor of opening the 
first school in the county, in 1802, in a small shanty near where the 
village of Blair is now situated. The first teacher was a Pennsylvania 
German named Rittenhaus. Six years later (1808) a second school 
was opened about one and one-half miles north-east of Preston by one 
David Strohm, and the same year another near the junction- of Mill 
street and Shoemaker avenue in the south ward, Berlin. The famous 
O'Lone's school was opened a few years later on the same site as the 
present Centreville school, and about the same time, or perhaps a year 
or two earlier, Tobias Wanner kept school in a log dwelling house at 
' Doon. 

Between 1820 and 1840 the fertility of the soil and the salubrity 
of the climate of Waterloo county having been heard of far and wide, 
settlers, especially from across the border, flocked into it very rapidly, 
so that in 1842, when the first Common School Act was passed, there 
were 31 fairly well established schools in the county — 13 in Waterloo 
township, 8 in North Dumfries, 7 in Wilmot and 3 in Woolwich. 
Squatters were about this time pouring into Wellesley (The Queen's 
Bush). Thdre were then no incorporated towns or villages in the 

Among the oldest of these 31 schools, omitting the five already 
mentioned, were, in Waterloo township — one in the town of Waterloo 
and one near Fisher's Mills; in North Dumfries — one each at Gait, 
Little's, Wrigley's Corners and Whistlebare; and one in Woolwich 
near Martin's Meeting House about three miles north of Waterloo. 

The most noted of the schoolhouses of that period is the Waterloo 
log schoolhouse which was built about 1820 and, after school had been 
kept in it for 20 years, was removed to Greenbush where it was 
occupied as a dwelling house for about fifty years and then removed 
back to Waterloo where it may be seen today in the Public Park. 

•The most prominent teachers of those early days were Benjamin 
Eby (Bishop), James Deary or Derry, William Tilt, James Dickson, 
James Milroy, William Veitch, Noah Bechtel, William Telfer, Isaac Z. 
Hunsicker, Jonathan Good and John Bowman (father of the lato I. B. 
Bowman, M. P.). 

The first Common School Act, the foundation upon which our 
present school system rests, came into force in 1843. Under this Act 
the townships were divided into school districts (the term district was 
changed to section in 1846), trustees were elected, school rates levied, 
schoolhouses erected, teachers examind and licensed, a course of study 
prescribed and the first Government grants paid to rural schools. 


The forming or altering of boundaries of school sections was at 
first done by commissioners, but in 1850 this power was transferred to 
the township councils. 

The first meeting to examine teachers in this county was held at 
Freeport in December, 1843. The commissioners persent were Dr. 
Fulsom, James Phin, William Tilt, Jacob Lutz and a Church of England 
clergyman from Guelph who presided. The candidates for certificates 
were Amos Adams, Benjamin Burkholder, Nelson Newcombe, Ellas 
Eby and one Lazarus who was then teaching in Berlin. Mr. Lazarus, 
after glancing around the room and making an estimate of the calibre 
of the Board, walked out remarking quite audibly that he was not 
going to be examined by a "set of farmers." The other four received 
their certificates, the first issued in the county, but Mr. Lazarus 
received none and had to resign his position in Berlin. For subsequent 
examinations teachers were obliged to go to Guelph, the then county 
town of the united counties of Wellington, Waterloo and Grey. 

In 1844 the office of School Commissioner was abolished and that 
of Local Superintendent substituted. The first superintendents ap- 
pointed in this county were Alexander Allan, M.A., Robert Brydon, 
Martin Rudolf, and James Dow. 

The decade following the establishment of Common Schools was 
one of great progress. During it the Wellesley lands were nearly all 
taken up and schoolhouses erected in that township and elsewhere 
throughout the county where required. 

On the 1st January, 1852, there were 79 schools in the county — 
75 Common and 4 R. C. Separate. There were 81 teachers — 77 males 
and 4 females. The number of pupils was 5250. The amount expended 
on education that year was a little over $17,000. 

In March, 1853, the year following the separation of Waterloo 
county from the union with Wellington and Grey, the first meeting of 
the Board of Public Instruction for this county was held in Berlin. 
The local superintendents constituted the Board. They were Rev. 
James Sims, chairman; Alexander Allan, M.A., Secretary; Martin 
Rudolf, Otto Klotz and John Caven. The Board held five meetings 
that year, three of them for the examination of teachers. There were 
6 3 certificates granted at the three meetings, of which 15 were re- 
newals of certificates previously obtained at Guelph. At this time and 
for some years afterwards it was the practice of the Board to grant 
very few certificates for a longer period than two years, while a number 
were valid for only six months and some even for only three months. 

These Local Superintendents and their successors in office, who 
administered and directed the educational affairs of this county from 
1853 to 1871, when the office was abolished, have not, in the opinion 
of the writer, received from the public the credit for their work to 
which they were entitled. They were all educated, broad-minded, 
unselfish men, ever ready and willing to assist and advise the teacher 
and explain the almost unexplainable school law to the trustees. The 
obstacles which they were continually encountering, in the performance 
of their duties, were many and difficult. 

In this connection special mention is due Rev. James Sims — Local 
Superintendent for Wellesley for twelve years and chairman of the 
Board of Public Instruction for eight — Messrs. Robert Brydon, Otto 
Klotz, Henry Liersch, James Colquhoun, Rev. Duncan McRuer, Rev. 
Geo. Cuthbertson, Rev. James Boyd, Henry F. J. Jackson and Isaac L. 

A few of the teachers of the time, who are not yet forgotten by 
elderly people, were Messrs. Robert McLean, James Baikie, Alexander 
Young, John Klein, Benjamin Burkholder, David Knox, James Beattie, 
John J. Bowman and John McK. Anderson. 

Contemporaneously with the autonomy of our county in 1852 the 
people of the southern portion became ambitious to step on to a higher 
educational plane than then existed: result — the next year a Grammar 


School was opened at Gait with Mr. William Tassie, M.A., head master. 
Mr. Tassie, a gentleman of rare ability and widely known as a great 
disciplinarian, remained at the head of this school for nearly thirty 
years. The fame of the institution, familiarly known as "Tassie's 
School," reached the most distant parts of Canada and the neighboring 

The Berlin County Grammar School was established two years later. 
Rev. Henry McMeekin, head master. For the first fifteen years this 
institution consisted of one department which was conducted in an 
upper room in the Central School building. Its progress was retarded, 
to some extent, by the frequent changes of masters, still advancement 
was made and although slow was steady. 

Statistics show that at the end of 1870 there were 96 schools in 
the county — 2 Grammar Schools, 89 Common Schools and 5 R. C. 
Separate Schools. There were 152 teachers — 96 males and 56 females 
— and 12,445 pupils. The amount expended on education in the county 
that year was $66,200. 

1871 to 1906. 

The amendments to the School Law in 1871 were many and most 
of them very important. The name Grammar School was changed to 
High School and that of Common School to 'Public School; the Board 
of Public Instruction and the office of Local Superintendent were abol- 
ished and the County Board of Examiners and a County Inspector, 
respectively, substituted therefor; all Public and Separate Schools were 
made free; and attendance of pupils made compulsory. 

But it was the centralization feature of the measure that com- 
pletely revolutionized the working and administration of the system. 
Henceforth all examinations and authority became centred in the 
Education Department. The Grammar (now High) School Inspector 
had been from the beginning an officer of the Department, the County 
Public School Inspector now became practically one, and a little later 
on the R. C. Separate School Inspector became one, so that from 1871 
to the present time the Education Department has been in close touch, 
through these ofllcials, with every detail of the doings and progress of 
the schools. 

Mr. Thomas Pearce was the first County Insepctor appointed. He 
entered upon his duties 1st July, 1871, and was sole inspector till 1st 
July, 1'904, when a division of the county was made and he was ap- 
pointed for No. 1 Division, and Mr. F. W. Sheppard for No. 2 Division. 
The members of the first County Board of Examiners were Messrs. 
Thomas Pearce, chairman; Thomas Hilliard, secretary; Rev. James 
Boyd, and John M. Moran. Mr. Hilliard remained a most efficient and 
valued member of the Board for thirty years. 

The new requirements in accommodations and equipments, thanks 
to the liberality of the School Boards in the county, were met most 
cheerfully as the following will show: From 1871 to the present time 
67 new school houses have been erected, 16 enlarged and 15 re- 
modelled; a large number of playgrounds have been enlarged and 
improved and the equipment in all the schools increased or renewed. 
Some of the buildings are very fine structures, notably the Gait 
■Collegiate Institute, now almost ready for occupation, and the Berlin 
Collegiate and Technical Institute. Other school buildings that do 
credit to the trustees and ratepayers are five in Berlin — four Public 
and one Separate — three in Gait and one each in Waterloo, Preston, 
Hespeler, Ayr, New Hamburg, Elmira, Wellesley and Baden. 

During the same period the scholarship of both teachers and pupils 
has reached a high standard, the average attendance of pupils has in- 
creased fully fifty per cent., two model schools for the training of 
teachers have been established, eight kindergartens have been opened, 
manual-training and household science departments have been estab- 


lished, and last but not least a county teachers' association has been 
organized, which is one of the largest and most progressive in the 

The following are the names of a few of the teachers of that time, 
who have contributed largely towards our present enviable educational 
position in the Province, and whose noble work is still fresh in the 
memories of the people of this county (omitting those still in harness) : 
Messrs. J. W. Connor, B.A., Robert Alexander, R. H. Knowles, William 
Stahlschmidt, the late A. J. Brewster, Robert Blackwood, G. A. 
Mclntyre, G. W. Woodward, the late William Petrie, David Bean, the 
late Adolf Mueller, David Bergey, C. B. Linton, the late Saruch Eby, 
Sylvester Moyer, S. S. Herner, Z. A. Hall, Moses E. Braendle, the late 
Ezra E. Eby, Andrew Weidenhammer and F. W. Thomas. 

Besides these, if space permitted, there could be given a long list 
of public spirited trustees who have, without remuneration, many of 
them for over a quarter of a century, managed not only the financial 
affairs of the schools, but, in addition, have lost no opportunity to aid 
and encourage their over-worked but under-paid teachers. The only 
recompense these worthy men have, after serving the public for years 
and years, is a self-consciousness that they performed a public duty to 
the best of their ability. 

This sketch closes with 1906. There were then 107 schools in the 
county — 2 Collegiate Institutes, 94 Public Schools and 11 R. C. Separate 
Schools; 247 teachers — ^16 in Collegiate Institutes, 207 in Public 
Schools, including 11 Kindergarteners, and 24 in R. C. Separate 
Schools — sex of teachers, males 75, females 172; 12,154 pupils — 560 
in Collegiate Institutes, 10,157 in Public Schools, including the Kind- 
ergartens, and 1437 in R. C. Separate Schools. The amount expended 
in the county on education last year was $184,260, 

The writer believes it will be generally conceded that in no other 
department of human thought and activity in this prosperous County 
of Waterloo has there been more satisfactory growth and progress 
than in the important one of education. 

1808 to 1842. 

The first school within the limits of the present corporation of the 
town of Berlin was opened in 1808, in a small building near the 
junction of Mill street and Shoemaker avenue, in the south ward, John 
Beatty, teacher. It was discontinued when the Eby school was opened 
a few years later. 

On the Mennonite church property, east of the town, the Rev. 
Benjamin Eby (afterwards Bishop) built a log meeting-house about 
1813. As on some occasions this house was too small to accommodate 
all who came to hear him he built a frame annex, with a movable 
partition between it and the main building. In this annex he opened 
a German school in the winter of 1818-9. 

At this time the trail from Preston to Erb's (later Snider's) Mill 
(now Waterloo) passed by the Eby church and over the high ground, 
a little south of where the Court House now stands, and on to Green- 
bush through an almost impassable swamp, near where the Lion 
Brewery now is. There was then no house, not even a cross-road, at 
the present intersection of King and Queen streets — all forest. 

Mr. Eby himself taught German exclusively, and continued it almost 
every winter till 1844, Occasionally, however, an itinerant was engaged 
to teach English, Among those best remembered are Messrs. Gildie, 
Merritt, Palmer and James Derry. 

About 1824 a blacksmith's shop was built where the Bank of 
Hamilton now is and a little later a hotel on the opposite corner. In 
1828, the year in which the name " Berlin " was given to the place, 


there were three buildings — the hotel, a blacksmith's shop and a 
dwelling house. These constituted the nucleus around which the town 
has grown. 

In 183 2 the Mennonites, having decided to erect a new church, 
moved the frame annex to the southeast corner of the cemetery where 
it stood for many years, and was known as Eby's School or the Red 
Schoolhouse. Many of our people remember seeing it there before its 
removal some time in the sixties. 

In 183 3 a schoolhouse was built on the lot on which the Fire Hall, 
Frederick street, now stands, and beside a church which had been 
previously erected on the same lot. A teacher of the name of Growel 
taught in this schoolhouse during the winters 1833-4 and 1834-5. By 
August, 1835, there were 25 houses in Berlin. The following year 
Messrs. Peter Erb, John S. Roat, and Jacob S. Shoemaker were elected 
school trustees, and Mr. Alfred B. Hopkins taught the Frederick street 
school the winter of 1836-7. Mr. Isaac Z. Hunsicker taught in the Red 
Schoolhouse for nine months, beginning May, 1837. 

This brings us to an epoch in the annals of our good town. The 
progressive public spirit, which has never since forsaken the inhabitants 
of this place, especially manifested itself in 1837. The hitherto un- 
obtrusive and undemonstrative villagers, led on by Bishop Eby, Mr. 
Henry W. Peterson and Mr. Henry B. Bowman, the three school 
trustees for that year, petitioned the Government to make some change 
in the postal arrangements then in existence. The result was the 
Deputy Postmaster-General instructed the Preston postmaster to place 
Berlin mail matter in a separate bag to be dropped at Peterson's 
printing office by the mail carrier on his way through here to Waterloo. 
All out-going mail was placed in the bag ready for the mail carrier on 
his return same day from Waterloo. Although this service was only 
bi-weekly it was greatly appreciated by the people. Previous to this 
all letters for Berlin were addressed to Waterloo; after this they were 
addressed to Preston. 

The same year the itinerant, Mr. James Derry, returned to Berlin 
and arranged to teach the Frederick street school the ensuing winter, 
but partly owing to the difficulty of heating the schoolhouse, now out 
of repair, and partly to his imbibing habits the school broke up in 

The first Queen's Birthday celebration in the Empire — 24th May, 
1838 — was loyally observed in Berlin by Mr. John Benner, blacksmith, 
getting out his anvil and firing from it a royal salute. 

Mr. John M. Brown taught in the Frederick street school during 
the summer of 1838. Mr. John Winger taught the same school the 
following winter, but suffered so much from the cold that the next 
summer he fitted up his pump shop, which stood where the Bank of 
Toronto now is, for a schoolhouse and taught there during the two 
following winters. He had an average attendance of 30 pupils. 

In 1839 the Frederick street schoolhouse was repaired and the 
next year re-occupied. The trustees then were Messrs. Christian Unger, 
John W. Eby and John Benner. 

Mr. John Frederick Augustus Sykes Fayette, a well educated mu- 
latto, built a schoolhouse on his own account in rear of where the 
Royal Exchange hotel now stands, in 1840. He called it the "Welling- 
ton Institute," and opened it in December, charging the usual rates, 
but being poorly patronized he ran into debt and left a year or two 
afterwards quite suddenly, greatly to the chagrin of his creditors. His 
was the first school in Berlin in which any attempt had been made to 
teach grammar and also the first in which the pupils saw a geographical 
map. Jacob Y. Shantz, then 18 years of age, and the late Israel D, 
Bowman, a lad of 11, attended this school. 


1843 to 1856. 

The first Common School Act for this Province was passed in 1841, 
but being found inoperative it was repealed the following year and 
another Act passed which authorized the formation of school districts, 
the election of trustees, the building of schoolhouses, the examination 
and licensing of teachers, etc. Pursuant to the provisions of this Act 
four commissioners were appointed to examine and grant certificates 
to teachers in the township of Waterloo. The first meeting was held 
at Freeport in December, 1843. The subjects of examination were 
Reading, Spelling, Writing, Arithmetic and a little Grammar and 
Geography. Pour candidates passed the examination and were granted 
licenses to teach. 

School Districts became School Sections in 1846. From that year 
till its incorporation as a village, in 1854, Berlin was known to school 
authorities as School Section No. 5 Waterloo Township. What is now 
known as S. S. No. 5 was then S. S. No. 4 Waterloo. The school in 
this latter section was known far and wide as O'Lone's School. It was 
one of the oldest in the county and stood on the same site as the 
present Cetnreville school. 

From about this time till the end of 1856, school was kept in both 
the church and schoolhouse on the Fire Hall property, as well as in 
the Red Schoolhouse. During this period the time of keeping school* 
open gradualy increased to six and even nine months in the year, in 
all three schools. 

Mr. Adam Ruby taught for a while in one of the Frederick street 
schools in 1848, and for nine months in 1849. In the latter year his 
school was inspected by District Superintendent Finlayson of Fergus. 

In 1852 Mr. John Klein was appointed teacher in the Red School- 
house and taught three or four years. Being a man far above average 
ability and force of character he is well remembered by many of our 
townspeople of today. Mr. Klein resides at present in Walkerton, 
still active both mentally and physically, in his 82nd year. 

In 1853 the County Council purchased 3% acres of land between 
Frederick and Lancaster streets for a site for a Grammar School, paying 
therefor *£160 ($640). A deed dated 1st January, 1855, conveyed this 
property to the joint use of the Grammar and Common schools. 

The late trustees of S. S. No. 5 Waterloo, were Rev. F. W. Binde- 
man, Mr. William Davidson and Mr. George Jantz. Mr. Michael McNab 
was principal of the Frederick schools at a salary of £75 ($300) per 
annum. The census taken just before incorporation shows the number 
of children of school age, within the proposed village limits, to be 181. 

Berlin begins the year 1854 as an incorporated village. The 
members of the first Board of Trustees were Messrs. George Jantz, 
chairman; William Davidson, secretary; John Scott, M.D., Jacob Y. 
Shantz (who remained a member of the Board for the next 27 years), 
Henry Eby and John W. Eby. Mr. William Smith was the first principal 
under the new Board; salary, £100 ($400) per annum, and Dr. Scott 
was the first Local Superintendent; salary, £3 ($12) per annum. The 
ratepayers having decided on free schools, the Brb legacy, which had 
been left to pay the fees of indigent children, was now discontinued. 

Mr. William Smith was re-engaged for 1855 at an increased salary. 
He was assisted by a Miss Eakins, who had the honor of being the first 
lady teacher in Berlin. Mr. Benjamin Burkholder taught a few months 
the same year in the Red schoolhouse at the rate of £87 10s ($350) 
per annum. 

Besides the teachers mentioned, the following taught in one or other 
of the village schools during the last few years: Messrs. Frederick 
Gottlieb, A. G. Collins, Elias Eby, James D. Kennedy, Gabriel Bowman, 
Peter E. W. Moyer and John Oberholtzer. Most of these are still re- 
membered by people in town. 


In 1856 the Central School was erected on the site between 
Frederick and Lancaster streets, before referred to as the joint property 
of the Grammar and Common School Boards. The County Council 
made a grant of £50 ($200) to the Common School Board towards the 
completing of the building. The newly elected members of the Board 
this year, to take the places of two retiring, were Mr. John A. Mackie, 
who remained on the Board for 24 years, and was chairman a great 
portion of the time; and Mr. Henry S. Ruber, who was a member and 
secretary-treasurer for the next 17 years. Mr. David Knox was the 
last principal in the old Frederick schools. 

1857 to 1871. 

The next year (1857), in January, the new Central School was 
opened. Of the two retiring trustees one was re-elected and the place 
of the Other was taken by Mr. A. J. Peterson, thereafter a trustee for 
20 years. The first teachers in the Central were Mr. Alexander Young, 
principal, salary £150 ($600) per annum; Mr. John Strang, salary 
£90 (360) per annum; Miss Elizabeth Shoemaker, and before the end 
of the year. Miss Eliza Wait (now Mrs. W. F. Chapman, Toronto). The 
same year the Grammar School was removed from the old printing office 
on King street into an upstairs room in the Central School building. 

* Canadian currency — $4 per £. 

In 1858 the R. C. Separate School was opened, with the result 
that a considerable number of pupils withdrew from the Central 
School, and although the village was growing rapidly, an additional 
assistant was not required at the Central till 1863. In this year the 
fifth teacher was engaged at a salary of $100 per annum. In 1864 
Mr. Alex. Young resigned the principalship and Mr. Thomas Pearce, 
who had succeeded Mr. John R. Strang on 1st November, 1858, was 
promoted to that position. In 1868 a portion of the Grammar School 
room was partitioned off and a new room formed upstairs for the 
sixth division of the Central. The accommodation was then ample till 
1871, a year in which many and important changes were made in the 
school law. 

1871 to 1906. 

In 1871 the Village of Berlin became the Town of Berlin; Grammar 
Schools became High Schools and Common Schools Public Schools; 
the Board of Public Instruction and the office of Local Superintendent 
of Schools were abolished, and the County Board of Examiners and 
the County Inspector of Schools, respectively, substituted therefor. 
Mr. Thomas Pearce, principal of the Central School for the last seven 
years, having received the appointment of County Inspector, resigned 
and Mr. Donald McCaig was appointed in his place, Mr. W. F. Chapman 
(now Inspector of Public Schools in Toronto) being, at the same time, 
appointed first assistant. The attendance at the Central increased 
rapidly from the first of this year. In view of this and to procure more 
room at little cost the Public School Board petitioned the Town 
Council to provide quarters elsewhere for the High School. The 
Council granted the petition, the High School was removed to what 
was formerly the New Jerusalem Church, and the Public School Board 
not only gained another room, but from this time on had undisputed 
possession of the whole premises. The members of the first Public 
School Board of the new town were Messrs. John A. Mackie, chairman; 
A. J. Peterson, secretary; W. H. Bowlby (a member for the next 24 
years), Jacob Y. Shantz, J. H. Heller, Henry Baedecker, Frederick 
Rittinger and Enoch Ziegler. 

Mr. Donald McCaig resigned the principalship of the school in 
February the following year (1872), and Mr. Alexander Young, former 
principal, was re-appointed to that position and about the same time 
a seventh division was opened. From now on the growth of the town 
was very rapid. 

In 1873 Mr. I. D. Bowman was appointed secretary of the Board, 
which office he continued to hold for 23 years. In 1874, there being 
no further accommodation at the Central, an eighth division was 
opened in a room over the new Fire Hall on Frederick street. The 
first High School entrance examination was held this same year, and 
the Central made an excellent showing, a proof that the school was 
making satisfactory progress in point of scholarship as well as along 
other lines. 

Two years later (1876) an addition of four rooms was erected at 
the rear of the Central School at a cost of $5,000. The division at the 
Fire Hall was removed to the Central and a new division, the ninth, 
formed as well. 

In 1877 the Central School was selected by the Minister of Edu- 
cation, on the recommendation of the County Inspector, for one of the 
Model Schools for the training of third class teachers. Mr. Young 
resigned the principalship at midsummer and Mr. J. Suddaby received 
the appointment, thus becoming the first principal of the Model School. 
The next year another assistant was added to the staff. 

Mr. J. H. Heller and Mr. Henry Schwenn, trustees, retired in 1879, 
having served on the Board for 14 and 12 years, respectively, and Dr. 
R. Mylius was elected and remained on the Board for 1.5 years. In 
1882 the first Kindergarten was opened, with Miss Janet Metcalfe 
teacher. By 1886 the accommodation once more became inadequate. 
The twelve rooms at the Central were all occupied and overcrowding 
threatened, whereupon the Board, after considerable deliberation, 
selected a suitable site on Agnes street, in the West Ward, and, at a 
cost of over $4,000, erected thereon a four-roomed brick schoolhouse 
in which two divisions were opened in the fall, with Miss Maggie 
Hyndman head teacher. A third division was opened in this school 
two years later, and a fourth the next year (1889) with Miss Jennie 
Thompson, principal. 

One year later (1890) the overcrowding cry was ngaln heard and 
to give relief Courtland avenue school — four rooms — erected at a cost 
of $4500. Three divisions v/ere opened as soon as ready. Miss M. B. 
Tier being appointed principal. In 1891 a kindergarten class was 
formed at the Agnes street school. Miss Mary Sherk (now Mrs. W. H. 
Becker) teacher, and the next year one was opened in Courtland avenue 
school, Mrs. S. L. Martin, teacher. By the end of 1892 every room in 
the three schools had its full complement of pupils. The Board had 
again to face inadequate accommodation, and in order to put off 
building as long as possible it decided to discontinue German for a 
time and take the German room at the Central for a new division. 
This move gave only temporary relief. 

In 1893 the first trained kindergartner. Miss S. H. Ayres, was 
engaged for Courtland avenue school, and the same year Mr. J. B, 
Shotwell was appointed principal of the Agnes street school. 

In 1894 Margaret avenue school — four rooms — was erected, cost 
$6,000, and two departments occupied January, 1895. Miss Ada 
Cairnes (now Mrs. Alex. Eby) principal. At the end of this year Mr. 
John Fennell retired from the Board after a membership of 24 years, 
a number of which he was chairman. 

The end of 1896 finds the new schoolhouse on Margaret avenue all 
occupied. Miss Jessie Thomson conducting the kindergarten depart- 
ment. Every room in the four schools being now filled, a debatable 
question arose, which for a time seemed difficult to solve, viz.: Where 
to build next? The Board, however, after some months' deliberations, 
finally decided to add four rooms to the Agnes street school, making 
it an eight-room school. The grounds were enlarged, the addition 
erected — cost $5,000 — and two of the new rooms occupied before the 
end of the year (1897). The same year Miss J. Metcalfe was trans- 
ferred from the kindergarten department at the Central to the princi- 
palship of Margaret avenue school. 

40 . 

Mr. John S. Jackson was appointed principal of Agnes street school 
In 1898. A new division was opened there at the same time and a 
second kindergarten teacher engaged for an afternoon class at the 

In 1899 Mr. Richard Reid, who had been first assistant at the 
Central for the previous fifteen years, was transferred to the princi- 
palship of the Agnes street school. In the following year the last 
vacant room in the new addition at this school was occupied — a broad 
hint to the trustees that additional accommodation will be required in 
the near future. 

Modern out-buildings were erected at three of the schools, which 
with other improvements, cost the Board $6,000 in 1902. This year 
Miss Metcalfe resigned the principalship of Margaret avenue school 
and Mr. J. P. Martinson was appointed in her place. 

The year 1903 ushered in with the same old question, inadequate 
accommodation confronting the School Board. The town was still 
rapidly increasing in population, the schools all filled, additional ac- 
commodation required as soon as practicable. This time the problem 
of how and where to build became more complicated than in former 
years owing to an agitation in town to resume German in the schools — 
not in one school as formerly, but in all the schools. It soon became 
evident to the trustees that, to provide for the ordinary increase of 
attendance besides a room at each school for German, nothing short of 
eight new rooms would suffice. This staggered the Board for a time 
but it was finally decided to go on with the erection of the eight rooms — 
four at Courtland avenue school and four at Margaret avenue school, 
making each an eight roomed school. The additions, heating plants 
and furniture cost in round numbers $16,000. 

The year 1905 opened with Mr. Arthur Foster principal of Courtland 
avenue school and a month later Mr. J. P. Carmichael, principal of 
Margaret avenue school. In January of that year the name "Agnes 
street school" was changed by resolution of the Board to "King Edward 

Instruction in German. 

With the exception of a few intervals the instruction in the German 
language has been given in the Berlin schools from the earliest days. 
Bishop Eby taught German, and German only, nearly every winter from 
1818 to 1844. Between 1844 and 1857 German was taught by Messrs. 
Benjamin Burkholder, Elias Eby, Frederick Gottlieb, Adam Ruby and 
John Klein. Since the opening of the Central school in January, 1857, 
the German teachers have been Messrs. Rudolf Junk in 1860; Nicholas 
Matzenbacher, first six months of 1861; Oliver Holben, 1862-4; Joseph 
Albright, 1865-6; David Wittig, 1867-8; Conrad George,- 1869-70; 
Adolf Mueller, 1871-6; M. Brunner, 1877-9; Louis Von Neubroun, 
1880-93; Miss E. Veit, 1904-5; Miss A. C. Bornholdt, 1904, and Mr. 
Simon Reid, 1906. 

During the period of marvellous progress in our schools, 1871-1906, 
besides those already mentioned in this sketch the following gentlemen 
were members of the School Board for six years or over, each taking 
an active part in the proceeedings of his time, viz.: Messrs. Enoch 
Ziegler for 8 years; Louis Breithaupt, 6 years; Frederick Snyder, 8 
years; Henry Aletter, 7 years; H. L. Janzen, 7 years; H. J. Hall, 15 
years; J. M. Staebler, 6 years; L. J. Breithaupt, 6 years; Joseph Binge- 
man, 6 years; G. M. DeBus, 6 years; L. G. Buchhaupt, 11 years; H. Y. 
Lackner, M.D., 8 years. 

There are now (1906) 36 class-rooms in our schools, all in use as 
follows: one at the Central for Model school; one at each of the four 
schools for German; one at each for kindergarten; and the remaining 
27 for the ordinary subjects of the Public school course. 


The members of the Public School Board for the present year are 
Messrs. John L. Meisner, chairman; Arthur Pequegnat (now in his 
fourteenth year), C. L. Pearson (in his thirteenth year), J. E. Hett, 
M.D., W. D. Euler, Frederick Kress, Wm. Hertfelder, John R. Schilling, 
Louis Sattler and Martin Schiedel; Edmond Pequegnat, secretary- 

In concluding the Public school portion of this sketch the writer 
wishes to say that most of the information given in regard to schools 
and their conditions prior to 18.52 was obtained over forty years ago 
from elderly people as he met them from time to time in and around 
Berlin. For many of his notes and memoranda he was especially 
Indebted to Messrs. Jacob Y. Shantz, Joseph Y. Shantz (an elder broth 
of Jacob Y.), Benjamin Burkholder, Cyrus Bowers, Moses Springer, 
A. J. Peterson, Adam Ruby, and files of the "Canada Museum," a 
German paper published by Mr. H. W. Peterson in Berlin in the thirties 
and said to be the fir^t Oerman paper published in Canada. 

The Berlin County Grammar School, as the Collegiate Institute was 
called at first, was opened on 2nd April, 1855, in a brick building on 
East King street, which had formerly been a printing office. The 
building was torn down three years ago to make room for Mrs. 
Knipfel's residence. The members of the first Board were Messrs. 
Henry S. Huber, chairman; William Davidson, secretary; D. S. Shoe- 
maker, John Scott, M.D., David Chalmers, and Isaac Clemens. The 
first head master was Rev. Henry McMeekin. His salary was £150 
($6 00) per annum. The number of pupils was about 30; fee, per 
quarter 15s. ($3.00). 

Two years later, January, 1857, the school was removed to an 
upstairs room in the Central school building. Mr. Robert Mathieson, 
B.A., was then master. The number of pupils in attendance that year 
was 35. No material change in the condition or circumstances of the 
school took place from the time of its location in the Central till its 
leaving there in 1871. The best remembered of the masters during 
those fourteen years are Messrs. Charles Camidge, David Ormiston, 
B.A., and J. H. Thom, M.A., (now Taxing Officer at Osgoode Hall, 
Toronto). Rev. F. W. Tuerk was teacher of German during most of 
this time. 

In 1871 the Grammar School was removed from the Cetnral School 
to the former New Jersalem Church at the corner of Benton and Church 
streets, where it began its career under its new designation — the Berlin 
High School; Mr. J. W. Connor, B.A., head master; enrolled attend- 
ance, 53; tuition free. 

Four years later (1875) the attendance having increased to 66, 
Mr. Connor was given an assistant, Mr. George B. Shaw, B.A. This 
same year a new brick building, costing $6,000, was erected on a 
portion of the site on which the Collegiate now stands. The High 
School was opened in the new building the following year, with Mr. 
David Forsyth, B.A., Mathematical and Science Master in place of Mr. 
Shaw, resigned, and Mr. Adolf Mueller, Modern Language Master. .The 
number of pupils enrolled this year (1876) was 91. 

A Commercial Master was appointed in 1885. That year the at- 
tendance had increased to 103. Three years later Mr. F. W. Sheppard 
was appointed English and Commercial Master, after which there was 
little change till the lamented death of Mr. Adolf Mueller in 1898. 
This sad event brought to a close what is regarded as a unique ex- 
perience in Ontario's secondary schools — the three masters, Messrs. 
Connor, Forsyth and Mueller, had worked together most cordially and 
harmoniously for a period of 22 years. In 1899 the school building 
was remodelled at a cost of $6,000. In 1900 Mr. Hugo Kranz resigned 
the secretaryship which he had held for eighteen years, but he remained 
a member of the Board till his death in 1901. 


At a meeting of the Board held on 15th February, 1901, a lengthy 
discussion on the advisability of establishing a manual-training depart- 
ment in the school was followed by a resolution appointing a committee 
of the following members: Messrs. C. Bitzer, A. Lang, E. Smyth and 
A. Werner, to visit schools where manual-training had been introduced, 
investigate, obtain all information possible and report. This was the 
first formal step taken in the proceedings that culminated in the insti- 
tution of which our town is justly proud, namely: The Berlin Collegiate 
and Technical Institute. 

In May, 1901, Mr. Connor, principal since 1871, resigned and Mr. 
D. Forsyth, B.A., one of the staff for the previous 25 years, was 
appointed in his place and entered upon his duties the following 
September. This year was also marked by the retirement from the 
Board of Dr. D. S. Bowlby, who had been a member for 35 years and 
chairman for 27. 

In 1902 the number of pupils on the roll having increased to 191, 
a fifth master was added to the staff, and the following year the Manual 
Training and Household Science classes were opened in temporary 
quarters in town while waiting for the completion of the new building. 
The first teachers were those at present filling the positions. 

In regard to the extensive addition proposed to be built to accom- 
modate the increasing attendance at the school and at the same time 
provide rooms for the technical departments, it may be pointed out 
that over two years elapsed between the initial step in February, 1901, 
before referred to and the letting of the contract in the spring of 1903. 
This is conclusive proof that the Board had moved cautiously and had 
fully and thoroughly considered the whole question before deciding 
to proceed with so heavy an expenditure. The cost of the new wing 
and its equipment was in round numbers $30,000. It was ready for 
occupation in September, 1904, from which date it is known, by 
authority of the Hon. the Minister of Education, as Berlin Collegiate 
and Technical Institute. 

In June of this year Mr. F. W. Sheppard, having been appointed 
Inspector of Public Schools, resigned his position on the staff, which he 
had held for 16 years. The only event of importance that has since 
transpired was the formal opening of the school by the Lieutenant- 
Governor and the Minister of Education in December, 1904. 

We now come to 1906 — in the number of pupils in attendance, 225; 
in the high standing of the staff; in the excellence of the management 
and evidences of general prosperity- — the record year of the school. 

The members of the Board are Messrs. Edward Smyth, chairman; 
D. B. Detweiler, A. L. Breithaupt, Oscar Rumpel, Peter Shirk (who is 
now serving his 29th year), August Werner, W. A. Greene, and Fred 
erick Rohleder; Mr. Carl Kranz, secretary-treasurer. The teaching 
staff — Messrs. D. Forsyth, B.A., principal and Math. Master; D. S. 
Jackman, M.A., Science; G. R. Dolan, B.A., Classics; L. Norman, B.A., 
Commercial; H. G. Martyn, B. A., English; W. H. Williams, M. A., 
Modern Language; H. W. Brown, Art and Jun. Math.; D. W. Houston, 
Manual Training; Miss K. A. Fisher, Household Science; Miss M. 
Zoellner, Physical Culture. 


Through the aid and influence of the Rev. Father Laufhuber, a 
zealous travelling missionary, stationed for a time in Berlin, the 
Separate School was established in 1858. The schoolhouse, a one- 
roomed brick building, was erected on the church property, within a 
few feet of where the present schoolhouse stands, and paid for by 
private subscription. 

Mr. John Berberich was the first teacher. He had an attendance 
of about 60 pupils. The members of the first Board of Trustees were 
Rev. Father Laufhuber and Messrs. George Jantz and Anselm Wagner. 


The second teacher, Mr. Joseph Fischer, was followed by Mr. 
Charles Levermann, who taught for about twelve years, and is well 
remembered as a successful teacher, but more especially as a thorough 
scholar, having been educated for the priesthood. 

Except a slight but steady increase in the number of pupils in 
attendance there was but little change in the condition of the school 
till 1874, when a very decided forward step was taken in the erection 
of a new schoolhouse of two class-rooms, at a cost of $1600, and the 
placing of two School Sisters of Notre Dame in charge. The attendance 
soon reached 140 pupils and a marked improvement in the management 
and progress of the school ensued, which it may be remarked has 
continued to the present time. 

In 1888 the Board of Trustees added two stories to the one-story 
building of 1874, at a cost of $1200. The two rooms of the second 
storey were taken for class-rooms and two additional teachers (Sisters) 

During the next eight years the attendance increased to over 300, 
pointing plainly to a necessary enlargement of the building. In 1897 
six new rooms were added, which with modern conveniences and a new 
heating system cost the Board about $8,000. Two more teachers were 
added to the staff as soon as the rooms were ready for them, making 
a total of six. The same year (1897) the Rev. Father Laufhuber's 
schoolhouse was removed. 

The rapid growth of the school has continued till now (1906) there 
are 525 pupils enrolled and ten teachers (Sisters) engaged, with the 
Board of Trustees considering the advisability of forming a new 

The following gentlemen constitute the present Board: Rev. W. 
Kloepfer, D.D., chairman; Messrs. P. R. Ringle, secretary-treasurer; 
Geo. C. H. Lang, H. Krug, Ignatz Haller, Joseph Fuhrmann, And. 
Englehardt, Henry Dietrich, John Stumpf and Jacob Gies. 

The following statistical table will show at a glance the marvellous 
growth of Berlin schools since the year 1808: 

Public So.hools. 


R. C. Separate 









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<i> t. 


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0) ;, 

3 « 

3 m 

3 <s 

3 4) 

ri ft 

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eS o 

^? o 

















o . 



O . 



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O . 











u u 


-M o 

^ u 


-M o 

U (h 


-M o 

u (-> 


+J o 

(U <D 

<1> m 

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<U 0) 

<0 m 

oj o 

3 0) 

<» rA 

cS o 

(S 0) 

* m 

ej O 




.a 43 















.5 w 


3 4) 

3 3 


3 S 

3 3 


3 « 

3 3 


3 ® 

3 3 













12 CM 










$ 400 



$ 400 







$ 600 



% 700 

























































St. Jerome's College, founded by the late Very Rev. Louis Funken, 
C.R., D.D., in 1864, was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1866. 
It has grown from humble quarters in a small log house at St. Agatha 
to its present noble building with its fine grounds and residences. Its 


reputation as an institution of learning is more than provincial, or 
even national, it is continental, drawing as it does students from all 
parts of Canada, the United States and even Central America. It has 
at present (1906) fifteen professors and tutors and over 100 students. 
Its curriculum comprises complete commercial, science, classical and 
philosophical courses. 

The Carmel Church School was established in 1888 in connection 
with the late Rev. F. W. Tuerk's church, but was removed to its present 
beautiful location and surroundings in 1891. The academic work of 
the school is under the supervision of the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, minister 
of the New Jerusalem church, assisted by the Rev. Ernest J. Stebbing, 
and two other instructors. The number of pupils usually in attendance 
is 40 to 45. The management of its fianncial affairs is in the hands of 
a Board, composed of Messrs. Richard Roschmann, chairman; Rudolf 
Roschmann, treasurer; George Scott, secretary; Jacob Stroh, John 
Schnarr, and Emil Schierholtz. 

Mr. Pearce's School History extends to 1906. It is continued to 
1914 by Mr. Peter Fischer, Principal of Courtland Avenue School, 
Berlin, Secretary of this Society, for Public Schools; by D. Forsyth, B.A., 
Headmaster of the Berlin Collegiate and Technical Institute, for his 
school; and by Rev. Theo. Spetz, C.R., D.D., Vice-President of this 
Society, for R. C. Schools, as follows: 


The year 1907 was a record year in the rual schools of Waterloo 
County, made memorable by the radical change of basis for the dis- 
tribution of the legislative grant and an unprecedented activity of rural 
school boards to improve their properties, so as to meet requirements. 

1908 saw an expenditure of $16,000 on Preston Public School in 
remodelling and securing additional accommodation. In the same 
year a number of new buildings were erected in rural sections. 

In 1909 an expenditure of $43,000 was made on sites and new 
buildings of improved type in urban schools. In this year Alexandra 
School, with four departments, was erected in Waterloo Town at a 
cost of $15,000, and a six-room addition was built at Gait Central 
School at a cost of $15,500. 

In 1910, $65,000 was spent on increased public school accommo- 
dation. iSince 1906, the large sum of $200,000 had been spent on new 
buildings and improvements. Ten new rural schools were erected. 

In 1911 a new two-room brick school was built at Heidelberg at a 
cost of $6,400. In this year a four-room addition was made to Preston 
Public School at a cost of $19,000, including a new heating system, 
and new grounds were acquired at a cost of $4,000. 

In 1909 the Berlin Public School Board acquired a new site for 
school purposes, the old Dr. Bowlby place on John street, at the head 
of Foundry street, at a cost of $12,000, and 1911 saw, on this site, the 
completion of Victoria School, one of the handsomest structures for 
school purposes in the province. 

In 1913 a new eight-room school, St. Andrews School, was built in 
Gait at a cost of $50,000. 

Mr. Thomas Pearce retired from the office as Inspector of Public 
Schools in 1912, after a period of forty-one years (1871-1912). 

Mr. F. W. Sheppard, who had been Inspector of Division II. since 
1904, became Inspector for North Waterloo, while Mr. Lambert 
Norman, B.A., Commercial Master of the Berlin Collegiate Institute, 
became Inspector for South Waterloo. ■ 

A feature to be noted in 1913 was the establishment to that date 
of 78 libraries in rural schools with 8759 volumes. 

In 1910 the registration of pupils in urban schools showed a very 
marked increase over that of 1906, while that of rural schools fell from 
4460 in 1906 to 4093 In 1910. 


The total registration in Public, Kindergarten, and Continuation 
School departments in 1913 was 10,948; of this urban schools had 
7,031, rural had 3,917. 

Since 1909, when it was acute, the difficulty of securing qualified 
teachers has been on the decrease from year to year. 

Waterloo County is dependent to an extent upon less prosperous 
counties for its supply of teachers. In consequence, salaries have had 
to be advanced in order to induce teachers to take positions at a dis- 
tance from their homes. The constant demand for help in commercial 
and industrial establishments of the thriving towns of this county not 
only prevents most of the students of the Collegiate Institutes from 
entering the teaching profession but also leads many teachers to 
abandon it. 

In recent years a number of rural schools have established school 
gardens and a course of Elementary Agriculture and Horticulture is 
given under teachers with Departmental certificates. The excellent 
exhibits of the results of these experiments have stirred up an interest 
in this very useful and instructive course. 

Speaking broadly and judging from the reports of the Inspectors 
the work done in the Public Schools of the County of Waterloo is 
highly satisfactory, and educational affairs are being kept in the fore- 
front in this County. 


The last session of the Model School was held in the Fall of 1907, 
with a record attendance of students. 

Principal J. Suddaby died suddenly on May 29, 1910. Mr. Suddaby 
was born near Grenville, Prescott County, in 1842, and after com- 
pleting his Normal School training taught in the County of Waterloo 
until 1877 when the new Model School was opened. Mr. Suddaby 
became the first principal and in the years that followed he had not a 
little to do with the training and preparation of many of the teachers 
of the County. In his time Berlin schools increased in number from 
one to four and the site for the fifth was acquired in 1909. 

Mr. Suddaby was a man of sterling worth, whom to know was to 
love; a born teacher, a man of splendid ability and attainment, a deep 
student, a friend of teachers and pupils. 

His death removed a brilliant figure from the teaching profession, 
not alone of this county but of the entire province, where he was widely 
known and esteemed an authority on educational affairs. In memory 
of Mr. Suddaby the Berlin Public School Board changed the name of 
the Central School to Suddaby School. 

On the re-opening of the Public schools in September, 1910, J. D. 
Weir was in charge of King Edward School, R. Reid having retired 
to become inspector for the Economical Fire Insurance Company. Mr. 
Reid was chairman of the School Board in 1911 and 1912, then was 
appointed agent-general for Ontario in London, England. 

J. B. Pomeroy took charge of Margaret Avenue School in succession 
to J. P. Carmichael, who became principal of Suddaby School. At the 
re-opening of school in Januaj-y, 1912, J. P. Carmichael became prin- 
cipal of Victoria School; A. Foster, of Suddaby School, and P. Fischer, 
of Courtland Avenue School. 

The new Victoria School was formally opened on Friday, January 
12, 1912, by the Hon. R. A. Pyue, Minister of Education, in the presence 
of a large gathering of citizens and pupils. 

In building Victoria School the Board had aimed at a thoroughly 
modern building. The school is a magnificent structure of red pressed 
brick with Roman stone facing, having a frontage of 145 feet and a 
depth of 81 feet. The building is absolutely fireproof, is heated by 
the Sturtevant system of steam heating and ventilation, including air 
washer and fan. The interior floors are of reinforced concrete through- 


out with Terrazzo flooring in corridors and lavatories. Including cost 
of grounds and equipment, the expenditure was $96,442. A five-room 
addition has been completed at a cost of $18,300. 

Besides providing this increased accommodation the Board has ac- 
quired suitable sites in different parts of the city where schools will 
be erected as the need arises. 

The Board in conjunction with the teaching staff has constantly 
striven to maintain and further the best interests of education in Berlin, 
and every year Berlin Public schools furnish an important quota of 
students who seek higher qualifications in the Collegiate Institute. 

The members of the Board as at present constituted are: J. F. 
Honsberger, M.D., chairman; A. Pequegnat, H. L. Staebler, H. H. 
Huehnergard, M.D., Louis Sattler, E. D. Lang, Charles Ruby, Allan 
Eby, Miss B. M. Dunham, B.A. Edmond Pequegnat, Secretary-Treas- 

In 1913 there were in Berlin Public schools 48 regular teachers, not 
including two drill instructors, two teachers in German and one in 
music; 2436 pupils, and the estimated value of school property was 


Up to the date of this sketch (December, 1914) the Collegiate has 
continued to show steady progress. This is evidenced by the increase 
in the attendance and by the large staff of fourteen members. The 
question of an extensive addition to the buildings so as to provide 
class rooms for a natural increase in the attendance (all available 
space being occupied) as well as to provide suitable Science Labora- 
tories, Gymnasiums, Art Rooms and Waiting Rooms, has been receiving, 
during the past two years, serious consideration on the part of the 
Board of Trustees and others. With this large expenditure in view the 
City of Berlin and the Town of Waterloo, early in 1914, decided to 
unite for High School purposes, and, there being no opposition to the 
proposal, a special Act was passed by the Provincial Legislature to 
take effect from and after the close of the school term in June, 1914. 
Under this Act a new Board of Trustees was appointed, consisting of five 
members from Berlin and three from Waterloo and officially known as 
"The High School Board of the City of Berlin and the Town of Water- 
loo." The members appointed in June, 1914, to this first Board were: 
Berlin Representatives — Edward Smyth, chairman. Merchant; Oscar 
Rumpel, Manufacturer of Felt Goods; James A. Scellen, LL.B., Bar- 
rister; William T. Sass, Manager, Berlin Interior Hardwood Co.; John 
A. Lang, Manufacturer of Shirts and Collars. Waterloo Representa- 
tives — Cyrus W. Schiedel, Manager, Water and Light Plants; John 
M. Laing, B.A., Actuary, Mutual Life Assurance Company; John B. 
Fischer, Gentleman, Ex-Mayor. Edmond Pequegnat, Secretary- 

Staff of the Berlin and Waterloo Collegiate and Technical Institute, 
as appointed September, 1914: 

David Forsyth, B.A., Principal, Senior Mathematical Master. 
Walter H. Williams, M.A., Vice-Principal, Modern Language Master. 
Harold G. Martyn, B.A., English Master. 
Edmund Pugsley, B.A., Science Master. 
Charles S. Kerr, B.A., Classical Master. 

Harry W. Brown, B.A., Art Master, and Assistant Mathematical 

Miss Bertha Mallory, Commercial Master. 

Miss Anna A. Lee, Lower School History Master. 

Miss Etta L. Barber, Lower School Geography and English Master. 


Miss Marian K. Boyd, Household Science Instructor. 
D. Wesley Houston, Manual Training Instructor. 
Miss Muriel A. Kerr, Physical Director for Girls. 
•Captain Osborne, Physical Director for Boys. 

Miss Nellie K. Hodgins, Assistant Commercial Master and Assistant 

Number of students in attendance during the year 1914, 354. 


The new division was built in 1913-1914 in the north ward, near 
the cemetery, as a four-room school, at a cost of $23,000. This school 
is now filled to capacity. The insepctor reports that this school is the 
best and the best equipped in his district. There is only one room 
vacant in the old school, so that the Board is again confronted with the 
problem of providing more accommodation. Two sites have been pro- 
cured, one in the west ward and another in the east ward. 

There are at present 729 pupils on the roll under 15 teachers, 
with Sister M. Damascene as principal. Sister M. Clothilde had been 
principal from 1874 to her death on January 22, 1902. Her successor 
was her first companion. Sister M. Caga, who kept the principalship 
till her death on July 15, 1914. 


In the year 1906 the Education Department of Ontario demanded 
that teachers of religious communities should, like lay teachers,, obtain 
regular certificates and therefore attend the Provisional Normal School. 
Up to this time the community of the Notre Dame had prepared their 
teachers at their Motherhouse in Milwaukee, Wis. As it would be 
diificult to combine thorough religious community life with attendance 
at a High or Normal School away from the Convent, the Sisters of 
Notre Dame decided to open a school here in which to prepare their 
candidates for the Normal School under their own care. This was 
done in 1907 in the residence of the late Mr. Erb on Foundry and 
Weber streets. The following year the Pearce Terrace on Foundry 
street was secured to accommodate the increasing number of pupils 
and at this writing the buildings are overcrowded. 

This new school promises to become an important addition to th© 
Berlin educational institutions under the capable management of the 
Sisters of Notre Dame. 


In 1907 a large handsome building was erected, in front of the old 
ones, on Duke street. Scarcely was this completed when the original 
building, erected and enlarged by its founder, was destroyed by fire, 
the fire fortunately, thanks to standpipes and fire appliances in the 
new building, was confined to the old one. 

It was decided to replace the destroyed part by a new, larger and 
modernly equipped building, on the College street side. This building 
contains a gymnasium, with swimming pool and other appliances in 
full, a fine hall, and class room. With this the College now has a 
fine set of buildings, as also ample ground. 

The priests now on the staff are: Rev. Albert Zinger, President; 
Rev. Vincent W. Kloepfer, Vice-President; Rev. Fathers Schweitzer, 
Theo. Spetz, William Benninger, Aloysius ScafEino, Paul Sobjak, Clar- 
endon and Charles Kiefer. There are also a number of laymen. 

There are 135 students, almost all boarders. 





A farm house in the valley in the townland of Coollattin, Barony 
of Shillelagh, in mountainous County Wicklow, Ireland, was the birth- 
place of Thomas Pearce. His home was not far from the meeting of 
the waters in the "Vale of Avoca," immortalized by the poet Thomas 
Moore in his Irish Melodies. 

His parents, William and Eliza Pearce (nee Kerr), of Yorkshire 
and Lowland Scotch parentage respectively, held the farm by a life 
lease from Earl Fitzwilliam, a Yorkshire nobleman. They had a 
family of nine children, Thomas, born on the 15th August, 1832, was 
the third son. 

He attended a private school in the village of Shillelagh until he 
was sixteen years of age; Mr. John Connor, principal of the school, 
(father of Mr. J. W. Connor, B.A., for many years Head Master of 
Berlin High Scholo) was his last teacher. 

After leaving school, his two elder brothers having gone into 
business in Dublin, he assisted his father in the management of the 
farm for a few years, his special branch being the care of a flower and 
vegetable garden. 

At the age of 23 he decided on a trip to Canada to visit some 
relatives, see the country and return. Accordingly, he arrived in 
Montreal in May, 1857, spent a few weeks in the city and then pro- 
ceeded to Brockville and vicinity, where he put in some months very 
pleasantly among his relations. By this time he had become deeply 
interested in the new country, its people, and everything he saw, with 
fhe result that he hesitated about returning to the "Old Sod." Before 
coming to a decision, however, he wrote to Mr. Connor, his former 
teacher, who had come to Canada a few years before and was at this 
time principal of a school in or near St. Catharines, and asked his 
advice as to remaining in the country and what occupation he would 
suggest. Mr. Connor promptly replied, advised the young man to 
remain, at least for a time, and, as he knew something of his former 
pupil's ability and scholarship, hinted that he might try teaching 
school, but emphasized that before teaching, if he should adopt that 
calling, a course at Toronto Normal was most desirable. 

After due deliberation Mr. Pearce decided to remain in Canada 
and to at once take steps to qualify as a teacher. With this in view 
he spent a session at the Toronto Normal School, passed the necessary 
examinations and obtained his certificate in October, 1858. Early In 
the same month the Berlin School Board made application to Dr. John 
Herbert Sangster, Mathematical Master at the Normal, for a teacher. 
Dr. Sangster recommended Mr. Pearce. A few days later he received 
notice from the Berlin Board that he was appointed first assistant in 
the Central School. He arrived in Berlin from Toronto on October 26, 
and entered upon his active duties on November 1st, quite proud to 
learn that he was the first Normal trained teacher, not only in Berlin, 
but for several miles around. 

In 1864, April 27th, Mr. Pearce was appointed principal of Central 
School. This position he held for seven years, when, on July 1st, 1871, 
he was appointed School Inspector for the County of Waterloo. 

With Mr. Israel D. Bowman he took an active part in bringing 
about the change of the Mechanics Institute Library to the Berlin Free 
Library, in 1884. He was the first chairman of the Free Library Board. 

He was a member of the Central Committee of Examiners for 
Ontario for several years, being appointed in October, 1889, by the 
Hon. G. W. Ross, Minister of Education. 


He travelled considerably in Canada and the United States, and in 
187 8, the year of the second Paris Exposition, visited his old home and 
other places in the United Kingdom, as also the Continent of Europe. 

In 1912, on the last day of the year, Mr. Pearce retired from the 
Inspectorship, thus closing a unique record of fifty-four years of con- 
tinuous service in the cause of education in Waterloo County; thirteen 
years as teacher in the Berlin Central School, six years assistant and 
seven years principal, and forty-one years in the wider service of the 
county as inspector; truly a useful and a remarkable career. 

Always by preference an outdoor man, he now spends his leisure 
with success and keen enjoyment, in cultivation, especially of trees 
and shrubs, at a small country place, overlooking the valley of the 
Grand River near Berlin. 


The third son of Otto Klotz, Waterloo County pioneer (see First 
Annual Report of this Society), Otto J. Klotz, was born in Preston, 
Ont., March 31, 1852. At the public examination at Berlin in 1865 
he obtained the County scholarship; in the following year he obtained 
the scholarship for free tuition at the Gait Grammar School (Tassie 
school, not Dr. Tassie then), which he accepted. 

In 1869 he matriculated 8,t the University of Toronto in Engineer- 
ing and Medicine and obtained the $120 scholarship in the latter. 
Eventually he gra,duated in Engineering from the University of Michi- 
gan, in 1872. 

After some time spent in exploration of the north shore of Lake 
Superior he was in private practice in Guelph and Preston until 1879, 
when he entered the Dominion Government service, in which he was 
connected with the Topographical Surveys branch of the Department 
of the Interior until 1908, when he was appointed assistant Chief 
Astronomer to the Department. In 1884 he made exploratory surveys 
along the Saskatchewan and Nelson rivers to York Factory, Hudson's 
Bay, thereby making a canoe trip of 2,000 miles, and being, as far 
as is known, the first man, white or Indian, to descend the whole length 
of the Nelson river in the century. On this journey he encountered 
and made magnetic locations of various points that had been occupied 
by the ill-fated Arctic explorer, Sir John Franklin. In 1885 he in- 
augurated the systematic astronomic work of the Department of the 
Interior. In 1892 he became connected with the trans- Atlantic longi- 
tude work, and in 1893-1894 with the Alaska boundary survey. In 
1898 he visited England and Russia, making many researches re 
Alaskan and other Canadian boundaries. In 1903-1904, on behalf of 
Canada, he completed the first astronomic girdle of the world, wiring 
the British Empire together astronomically. Since 1905 he is in 
special charge of Seismology, Terrestrial Magnetism and Gravity at 
the Dominion Observatory. 

Dr. Klotz was a delegate for Canada at the Hague 1907, at Zer- 
matt 1909, at Manchester 1911, and was in England on his way to 
St. Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1914 as delegate for Canada at the 
International Seismological Association meeting when the European 
war broke out. He is Honorary Fellow of the New Zealand 
Institute; Fellow of the Royal Society, Canada; Fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, England; the same for Canada; Fellow Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science; Member Washington 
Academy of Science; Member Author's Club, England; Member Society 
Astronomical de France; Member of the Astronomical Society of 
Mexico, etc. 

The University of Toronto conferred on him in 1904 the degree of 
LL.D., and the University of Michigan in 1913 that of D.Sc. 

Dr. Klotz is the author of many scientific papers published in this 
country and in Europe. 

As a native and long time resident of Waterloo County he cherishes 
pleasant memories of his old home. 


donations Received in 1914 

Lovell's Directory of Canada of 1857-58; donated by C. K. Hage- 
dorn, Berlin. 

Lovell's Directory of Canada of 1871; donated by J. N. MacKendrick, 

Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life; donated by the author, A. N. 
Scherck, Toronto. 

"Alte und Neue Welt," of 1841, published in Philadelphia; donated 
by Isaac Eby, Berlin. 

"Deutsche Canadier," of 1851, '52, '53, '54, '55, published in Berlin; 
donated by Isaac Eby, Berlin. 

"Berliner Journal" of 1913, donated by W. J. Motz, Berlin. 

"Neu Hamburger Neutrale" of 1855, 1857, published by W. H. 
Boullee; donated by W. H. Boullee, New Hamburg. 

"Berlin News-Record" of 1909 to 1913, inclusive, and "Berlin Daily 
Telegraph" of 1909 to 1913, inclusive; donated by the Berlin Free 

"Boston Gazette," one copy, of March 12th, 1770; donated by J. 
G. Stroh, Waterloo. 

"Waterloo Chronicle" of 1868 and 1869; donated by P. B. W. Moyer 
Estate, Berlin. 

"Elmira Signet" of 1893; donated by Arnold Jansen, Berlin. 

"The Wissler Family Record," donated by Henry Wissler, Elora. 

A number of Indian objects, including a stone axe and spear-heads, 
have been received from Mr. E. Menger, of St. Jacobs. 

A collection of mounted specimens of lynx, wolf, racoon, etc., and 
some birds, mostly shot in the early days of Wilmot township settle- 
ment; also old shot gun; donated by the late Gottlieb Bettschen. 

Photographs were contributed as follows: Corner of King and 
Queen streets, Berlin, 1863, by Mrs. R. Mylius; Volunteer Officers, New 
Hamburg Muster, 186 6, by A. Millar, K.C.; of Stedman Indian deed, 
1795, by J. N. MacKendrick; and the following portrait photographs: 
Gottlieb Bettschen, Jacob Hespeler, Sr., Sir Adam Beck, Dr. William 
Tassie, Hon. James Young, George Randall, Henry F. J. Jackson. 


jinnual Members 

Bean, D. A. . Berlin 

Beaumont, E. J Berlin 

Bettschen, Gottlieb (deceased 1914) New Dundee 

Blake, J. R ... Gait 

Boullee, W. H New Hamburg 

Bowlby, G. H., M.D Berlin 

Bowman, F. M Pittsburg, Pa. 

Bowman, H. J Berlin 

Bowman, H. M., M.A., Ph.D Berlin 

Breithaupt, A. L. . Berlin 

Breithaupt, Mrs. L. J Berlin 

Breithaupt, W. H Berlin 

Bricker, M. M Berlin 

Brown, H. W., B.A Berlin 

Clarke, J. D. Gait 

Clement, E. P., K.C Berlin 

Cram, "W. M. Berlin 

Dickson, J. A. R., D.D Gait 

Diebel, George Waterloo 

Dunham, Miss B. M., B.A Berlin 

Eby, Isaac Berlin 

Eden, J. R Berlin 

Euler, W. D Berlin 

Fennell, James P Berlin 

Fennell, John Berlin 

Fischer, P Berlin 

Fischer, W. J., M.D Waterloo 

Forsyth, D., B.A Berlin 

Fox, Charles J New Hamburg 

Hagedorn, C. K Berlin 

Hall, M. C Berlin 

Hallman, H. S Berlin 

Hett, J. E., M.D Berlin 

Hilliard, Thomas Waterloo 

Honsberger, J. F., M.D Berlin 

Huber, Allan Berlin 

Kerr, James E Gait 

Klotz, Jacob E Berlin 

Knell, Henry Berlin 

Lackner, H. G., M.D Berlin 

Lang, Louis Gait 

MacKendrick, J. N ■ Gait 

Meilke, E. F St. Jacobs 

Menger, E. . . . St. Jacobs 

Millar, Alex., K.C Berlin 

Mills, C. H., M.P.P Berlin 

Moore, J. D Berlin 


Motz, W. J., B.A Berlin 

Moyer, H. A Berlin 

Musselman, George L Conestogo 

Niehaus, C. P Berlin 

Oberlander, F. E„ D.D New York City 

Pearce, Thomas Berlin 

Playford, B. B Waterloo 

Potter, George E Berlin 

Richmond, Elliott St. Jacobs 

Ruby, Charles Berlin 

Scherck, M. G Toronto 

Schmalz, W. H Berlin 

Scully, Miss Annie Berlin 

Sims, H. J Berlin 

Smyth, Robert Berlin 

Snider, E. W. B St. Jacobs 

Snider, W. W St. Jacobs 

Snyder, Alfred St. Jacobs 

Snyder, W. H St. Jacobs 

Spetz, Rev. Theo., C.R., D.D Berlin 

Staebler, H. L Berlin 

Vair, Thomas Gait 

Wedd, G. M Berlin 

Weichel, W. G., M.P Waterloo 

Weir, J. J. A Berlin 

Werner, A Elmira 

Wideman, John L St. Jacobs 

Williams, S. J Berlin 

Winkler, W. H St. Jacobs 

Witzel, T. A Berlin 

Zinger, Rev. A. L Berlin 

Zinger, H. J Berlin 










^ }^@^^g^B^a}^^^ ^ ^^^ i ^^^^ 


of the 






^n fw.aife 


W. H. Bbeithaupt 

Rev. Theo. Spetz, C.R. 


Galt — James E. Kerb. 

Waterloo — Chas. Ruby. 

St. Jacobs — John L. Wideman. 

P. Fischer 

C. H. Mills, M.P.P. 

LiEUT.-CoL. H. J. Bowman, 

Capt. G. H. Bowlby, M. D. 

W. J. Motz, M.A. 

Judge C. R. Hanning. 



Annual Meeting and Secretary's Report 6 

President's Address 7 

Recollections of Early Waterloo 18 

Recollections of My Schooldays at Tassie's. . 20 

Experiences of a Queen's Own Rifleman at 

Ridgeway 24 

Donations 81 

List of Members 82 



Thomas Pearce 



William Tassie, M. A., L. L. D. 

Annual Meeting 

Berlin, Dec. 3rd, 1915. 

The Third Annual Meeting of the Waterloo Historical 
Society was held in the Museum in the Public Library on the 
above date, the President, W. H. Breithaupt, in the chair. 

Secretary-Treasurer's Report. 

Berlin, Dec. 3rd, 1915. 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen :• — 

I have the honour of presenting to you the Third Annual 
Report of the Waterloo Historical Society for the year 1915. 

The work of the Society has made considerable progress 
during the past year and important donations and additions 
have been made to the collection in the Museum. 

More people than ever have shown an interest in the work 
we are doing, and it is with much pleasure that I report a 
much larger membership than we had last year. 

We rejoice in having secured such splendid quarters. The 
Berlin Public Library Board deserve all the credit, for in no 
uncertain manner have they shown their co-operation and in- 
terest in the Society's welfare. 


The Society was fortunate this year in securing Mr. Clar- 
ance M. Warner of Napanee for an address on Tuesday evening, 
April 6th. 

Mr. Warner spoke on "One Aspect of the Century of 
Peace." The address was an excellent and impressive presen- 
tation of the subject, the result of considerable research. The 
speaker showed how the United States, Great Britain and 
Canada and their people really felt toward each other on or 
about the close of 1839, 1864 and 1889. Special attention was 
given to the relations between the United States and Canada at 
these periods. 

In closing the speaker said : ' ' The last century was filled 
with difficult problems which had to be settled. It started 
wrong and unfortunately these two countries were not par- 
ticularly anxious to meet each other's views and discuss dif- 
ferences in an amicable manner. A national and united spirit 
in each country was really necessary before much in the form 
of a permanent international good feeling could be developed. 

"As the years go by, may we all strive to maintain that 
harmony which exists at the present time, and may those who 
follow us have no cause for not celebrating all peace anni- 
versaries. ' ' 


A list of donations to the Society during the year appears 
elsewhere. We are now in an excellent position as regards 

space for taking care of donations of every kind, and we wel- 
come any relating to the history of the early settlement, as 
well as any documents, maps, charts, and articles that will 
assist in illustrating various phases of the subsequent industrial 
and social progress and development of the County of Waterloo. 


Receipts for 1915: 

Balance 31st Dec, 1914 $ 41 . ?.S 

Members' Fees I 87 . 00 

Legislative Grant 100.00 

Waterloo County Can. Club 11 . 25 

Berlin Public School Board 15.00 

Sale of Reports of 1914 2.75 216.00 


Disbursements for 1915: 

Postage, Stationery, etc $13.35 

Repairs 1 . 75 

Lecture 5 . 00 

Book Binding 1.75 

Advertising and Printing 44 . 00 

Copyright, Photos, etc 5.95 

Telephone and Express 2 . 10 

Travelling 2 . 00 

Caretaker two years, 1914-15 10 . 00 

Rents 14.00 

Secretary, two years, 1914-1915 60 . 00 

Third Annual Report 68 . 00 


Balance on hand $29.48 


Berlin, Ont., 19th Jan., 1916. 

Election of Officers. 
The officers for 1916 are : 

President W. H. Breithaupt 

Vice-President Rev. Theo, Spetz 

Secretary-Treasurer P. Fischer 

Local Vice-Presidents. 

Gait James E. Kerr 

Waterloo Chas. Ruby 

St. Jacobs John L. Wideman 

Members of the Council are: Lieut.-Col. H. J, Bowman, 
Capt. G. H. Bowlby, M.D., W. J. Motz, M.A., Judge C. R. 
Banning, C. H. Mills, M.P.P. 

Change in the Constitution. 

On motion of Alex. Millar, seconded by P. Fischer, the Con- 
stitution was amended so that an audited statement of receipts 
and disbursements will be prepared by December 31st each 
.year, to be included in the Annual Report of the year, 


President's Address 

After delay of more than a month waiting for completion 
of new quarters to be used by the Society we are at last enabled 
to have our meeting in this room, which, as you will note, is 
practically completed, though some little details remain to be 
done. It has been the Society's aim to have a fireproof place 
for a museum. In building the new extension to the Berlin 
Public Library (as spoken of last year) it was recognized that 
a fireproof room would be desirable for the purposes of the 
Library itself, and it was decided on. This large and com- 
modious room is closed off from the rest of the building by 
solid walls and fireproof door, and by an overhead floor of 
heavy steel beam and concrete construction; the window sash 
are steel, glazed with wire glass, and the floor of the room is of 
special construction, fireproof and damp proof. Convenient 
access, directly from the outside of the building, by the side 
entrance vestibule, is a further advantage. The room is for the 
time being, and probably as long as the Society may require to 
occupy it, given over to the use of the Waterloo Historical 
Society. Some day, sooner or later, this great and important 
County of Waterloo, historically venerable and materially great, 
will require better County buildings. When that time arrives 
we expect to see provided larger and more commodious quar- 
ters for this Society, let us say a dignified and properly 
equipped building by itself. One great desideratum is now 
attained. We can with confidence ask for old family heirlooms 
and family papers pertaining to the history of Waterloo and 
give assurance that here they will be imperishable, secure 
against destruction. 

It has not yet grown customary for this Society to have 
many meetings during the year, its purpose being more one of 
collection and preservation of historic material. During the 
year there was one general meeting, on April 6th, when the 
President of the Ontario Historical Society, Mr. C. M. Warner 
of Napanee, was kind enough to visit us and give us an 
address, as already reported by the Secretary. The regular 
annual meeting of the Ontario Historical Society was cancelled 
this year on account of the war. There was, however, a busi- 
ness and brief general meeting on June 2nd, which your Presi- 
dent attended, as representing the Waterloo Historical Society. 

For over a year now the great overmastering event in the 
world's history has been a devastating war which, though its 
fields of carnage are thousands of miles away, most vitally 
affects us here in Waterloo County as an integral part of the 
vast, far flung, world-encircling British Empire. Notwith- 
standing descent of many of us from a country and people now 
hostile, we refuse to stand second, in loyalty and sacrifice, to 
any part of the British Dominions. From this, for many years 
after its beginning almost wholly German settlement, men have 

gone, from the beginning of the war, to do their part, and 
large contributions have ben made to patriotic. Red Cross and 
various relief and other funds. In other respects, in the manu- 
facture of ammunition, of accoutrement, equipment, and cloth- 
ing parts, the manufacturing centres of the County have also 
been very active. To keep record of the County's part in 
assisting the Mother Country in this time of severe trial is a 
current undertaking of this Society. 

In continuation of the record begun in our Annual Report 
of last year, we have kept on accumulating data from various 
parts of the County. Of this only a part will here follow, as 
it is preferable to have the whole record, as pertaining to 
Waterloo County, at the end of the war. 

Until recently the principal North Waterloo military 
organization, with headquarters in Berlin, has been the 108th 
Militia Regiment, with the following officers : 

Honorary Lieut-Colonel — Richard Reid (Ontario Agent- 
General, London, Eng.) 

Lieut.-Colonel — H. J. Bowman. 
Major — W. M, 0. Loehead. 

Captains — E. D. Cunningham, W. H. Williams, A. Lock- 
hart, F. E. Macklin. 

Paymaster — Hon. Lieut. A. L. Breithaupt. 

Quartermaster — Hon. Lieut. A. E. Rudell. 

Lieutenants — W. H. Gregory, F. S. Routley, S. H. K. Bing- 
ham, P. E. Heeney, R. A. Lang, D. G. Mcintosh, Clayton H. 
Snyder, H. W. Scruton, Ralph L. Weaver, T. W. Seagram, W. 
H. J. Kreitzer, Frank Hilliard, A. C. Macauley, A. M. Kerr, J. H. 
Dobbie, Norman Schneider, F. C. H. Snyder, Solon Albright, 

F. J. Rooney, V. S. Mclntyre, Harry M. Lackner, D. D. Mc- 
Leod, C. J. Heimrich, J. H. Barkley, H. M. Cook, N. G. Evans, 
J. C. Anderson, F. L. Wilson, F. H. Boehmer, H. A. Moyer, R. 

G. Washburn, Clifford Stokes, Milton Detweiler, A. A. Mandel- 
sloh, E. S. Hodgins, H. A. Mowat. 

Within the past month a new unit, the 118th Battalion, 
Canadian Expeditionary Forces, has begun organization, under 
Lieut.-Colonel W. M. 0. Loehead, and continues in active for- 
mation, with vigorous recruiting throughout North Waterloo. 

The following list to date of soldiers from North Waterloo 
is supplied by Col. Bowman : 

British Reservists 5 

1st Canadian Contingent (1st Batt.) , 14 

2nd Canadian Contingent (18th Batt.) 30 

3rd Canadian Contingent (34th Batt.) 75 

(TthC.M.R.) 37 

4th Canadian Contingent (71st Batt.) 108 

(118th Batt.) 90 

Total 359 


Alexander Ralph Eby, of 
the Fifth Battalion, First Can- 
adian Contingent, born in 
Berlin, Ontario, 1891, killed 
in action March 20th, 191 5, 
descendant, in line of oldest 
sons in each generation, of 
Bishop Benjamin Eby, foun- 
der of Berlin and one of the 
first settlers in this locality. 

Bishop Benjamin Eby' s old- 
est son was Isaac Eby; Isaac 
Eby's oldest son was Menno 
Eby, who married a German, 
Elizabeth Becker. Menno 
Eby's oldest son was Alexan- 
der Eby, who married an Eng- 
lish-woman, Nellie Watson, 
and their oldest son was Alex- 
ander Ralph Eby, with whose 
death the line in direct des- 
cent of oldest sons from Bish- 
op Benjamin Eby becomes ex- 
tinct. The early Mennonite 
settlers refused on religious 
principles to carry arms in 
war. In the war of 1S12 a 
number of them took part as 

Pte. Alexander Ralph Eby 


Capt. G. H. Bowlby, M.D,, a member of the Council of this 
Society, was commissioned in July last and is active in hospital 
service at Shorncliffe, England. 

Col. Hilkiah Martin was for many years, 1892 to 1905, in 
the old 29th Waterloo Regiment, in which he rose from private 
to Lieut.-Colonel. At the opening of the war he was on the 
reserve of officers. He enlisted for overesas service in the 71st 
Battalion, C. E. F., Aug. 30th, 1915, commanding "C" Com- 
pany. Later he was transferred, and is now second in com- 
mand 118th Batt., C. E. F. 

Major B. Osborne, formerly of Grey's Horse, went with 
the first contingent and has recently returned on leave. Of the 
same contingent there have returned wounded Private Robert 
A. Seibert, Corporal Edgar Wackett and Private Herbert W. 

No deaths in the war have as yet occurred among men 
who went from Berlin. A Berlin man, Ralph Eby, who enlisted 
from Swift Current, Sask., was killed in action March 20th, 
1915, probably at Neuve Chapelle. 

In South Waterloo, Gait is headquarters, and has four com- 
panies, of the 29th Highland light Infantry of Canada, for- 
merly the 29th Waterloo Regiment. 

The officers are : 

*Lieut.-Colonel A. J. Oliver, Lieut.-Colonel J. D. Clarke. 

*Major A. J. Windell. 

Captains J. Limpert, L. W. Johnston, A. Hills, C. D. Camp- 
bell, *J. N. MacRae, *R. G. Elliott, *R. W. Meikleham, N. D. 
MacKenzie, *R. R. Brown, D. McLennan, *J. A. Mcintosh. 

Lieutenants H. W. DeGuerre, *R. McC. M. Gray, R. L. Mc- 
Gill, W. C. Glennie, E. W. Menger, M. Gumming, *D. M. North- 
combe, H. C. Rounds, *W. J. Pratt, *T. R. Coleman, J. F. Wel- 
land, *W. H. Macauley, *J. Rutherford, *A. E. Keen, *H. H. 
Pratt, *G. W. Jupp, F. J. Welland. 

*Gone to the war. 

Twenty-seven officers and men are dead, as follows: 

Lieut. Ross D. Briscoe, accidentally killed at Salisbury 

Captain Thomas Downey Lockhart, killed at Langemarck, 
April 23rd. 

Private Edward Callan, Preston. 

Private Percy Walley, accidentally killed at Guelph, 
March 11th. 

Private John E. Gahagan, accidentally killed at Guelph, 
March 11th. 

Private John Robert Jeffs, died of pneumonia, Gait, March 

Private Peter Nelson. 


Private George Simmers, at Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private William Adams, Preston, died of wounds, May 10. 

Platoon Sergeant Ernest J. Rowe. 

Private A. E. Butcher, Hespeler, died of wounds. 

Corporal Henry Charles Brade. 

Private James Leith. 

Private Walter Payne, at Langemarck. 

Private John Lynn Pattinson, Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private George Barnes. 

Private Ed. J. Sutton. 

Private Arthur Arber, Preston, at Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private James H. Reid. 

Sergeant William J. Pratt, at Givenchy, June 15th. 

Lance Corporal Charles Haskell. 

Private William Johnson, at Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private John McConnell Maley, Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private John D. Anderson, Givenchy, June 15th. 

Private, J. Carrol, Hespeler. 

Corporal Knight. 

Private Arthur Harold White, died of wounds. 

42 men have been wounded, one of them. Lance Corporal 
William Whitla, won the Distinguished Service Medal for gal- 
lantry at Langemarck. 

Eight men are missing, as follows : 

Sergeant Edward Bird. 

Corporal Hugh Cleave, after action of Givenchy. 

Private Ivan Hector Thomas, after action of Givenchy. 

Private Alfred Hawkins, after action of Givenchy. 

Private George A. Jones. 

Private George Charles Barker. 

Private L. Peterson. 

Private William Bowie. 

(Report by Lt.-Col. Clarke.) 

In Ayr there is a local company of the 29th Highland In- 
fantry Regiment, with officers : 
Captain H. Snell. 
Lieutenants J. T. Gillies and A. Lewis. 

There have gone to the war : 

With 1st Contingent — Captain E. C. Goldie and two men: 
Private H. Griffin, Sapper C. Kendall. 

With 2nd Contingent — Three men : Privates Rathe, Prod- 
ger and Hulley. 

With 3rd Contingent — Two men: Privates Upton and G. 

With 4th Contingent — Seventeen men : H. Rutherford, G. 
Dear, G. Last, H. Clarke, Pritcher, Ryan, Brandon, Britton, P. 



Captain Thomas D. Lockhart 

Captain Thomas Downey 
lyockhart, officer commanding 
Gait detachment with first con- 
tingent, killed in the battle of 
Langemarck, Friday, April 23rd, 
was born in Scotland, coming to 
Canada when a j^oung lad. At 
the time of enlisting he was 35 
years of age and previous to 
coming to Gait, had resided in 
Toronto. He came to Gait as a 
member of the firm of Norris & 
Lockhart, plumbers, but later 
became the head of the firm of 
T. Ivockhart & Co. He was 
prominent in curling and bowl- 
ing circles and was a member of 
the Masonic order. He met his 
death gallantly leading his pla- 
toon in a charge against the 
enem5% when he received his 
fatal wound, succumbing within 
half an hour. His brother Ar- 
chie is with the iiSth Battalion, 

Lieut. Ross D. Briscoe enlist- 
ed with the First Battalion and 
was transferred to the 9th Bat- 
tallion. He was killed at Salis- 
bury Plains by accident. He 
was the son of Mr. R. A. Bris- 
coe, a Gait dry goods merchant. 

Lieut. Ross D. Briscoe 



Pte. John Lynn Pattinson was 
killed at Givenchy, June i8th. 
He was one of the first to join 
the colors, and was a son of Mr. 
Geo. Pattinson, former M.P.P., 
of Preston. He was born in 
Preston, was unmarried, and 
had attained his 31st year. 

Pte. John Lynn Pattinson 

Corporal William Whitla en- 
listed with the First Canadian 
Contingent overseas, and was re- 
ported wounded on April 30th, 
191 5. He was awarded the 
Military Cross for bravery on 
the battlefield. He is a native 
of Newtonards, Ireland, and has 
been a resident of Gait for three 

Corporal William Whitla 

Carter, B. Styles, J. Elson, W. Short, G. Birehall, C. Birley, G. 
Hughson, W. Patterson, G. Puttoek. 

None have been killed in action as yet, though Sapper 
Kendall has returned ill from effects of gas. 
(Report by Lieut. Gillies.) 

From Preston there is a list of 147 officers and men who 
went with the first and later contingents. Many of them are 
included in the report from Gait. The Preston Band alone 
supplied 19 men, two of whom, Edward Callan and Archie P. 
Housler, are among the killed. Private Callan went with the 
first contingent and was the first man of the Regiment to fall in 
action, and that in the first action in which the Regiment 

On Friday, Sept. 17th last. General Sir Sam Hughes, Min- 
ister of Militia, visited Berlin and was enthusiastically received. 
There were addresses at the City Hall; a flying trip, in the 
afternoon, to Doon for a view of the Valcartier paintings for 
which Mr. Homer Watson, R.C.A., had been commissioned, and 
to Gait ; and in the evening dinner at the Grand River Coun- 
try Club, near Berlin, the officers of the 108th Regiment being 
the hosts. Later in the evening the General gave an address 
to a capacity audience at the Auditorium, Berlin. 

A new battalion, the 111th, has also recently been put in 
formation in South Waterloo, under Lieut.-Col. J. D. Clarke, 
and is rapidly filling up. 

The deaths of three members of the Society occurred dur- 
ing the year. 

John A. Rittinger, born in Berlin, Ont., February 16, 1855, 
died here July 29th. For 29 years, 1875 to 1904, he was active 
on and became proprietor of the German weekly paper, the 
Walkerton ''Glocke," and was well known throughout the 
Counties of Bruce and Grey as the " Glockemann. " In 1904 the 
"Glocke" was combined with the Berliner Journal when Mr. 
Rittinger returned here and became member, as was his father 
before him, of the firm of Rittinger and Motz, and was active, 
until his untimely death, as editor of the Journal. Mr. Rittin- 
ger took keen interest in the formation of this Society. His 
accumulated volumes of the ' ' Glocke ' ' have passed into posses- 
sion of the Society. 

Allen Huber was born here in 1847 and died here October 
3rd last. Mr. Huber was in many respects a remarkable man, 
if somewhat eccentric. He was of an old Waterloo Pennsyl- 
vania German family and was Mayor of Berlin in 1908. Mr. 
Huber was of very material assistance in the work of this 
Society, and secured for us severable valuable additions to the 
museum, among them the Weber waggon of 1807. 


An excellent paper in the Society's 1914 report was con- 
tributed by the veteran School Inspector, Thomas Pearce, 
whose death has now occurred, within a week ; on last Satur-^ 
day afternoon, Nov. 27th. A year ago Mr. Pearce was in 
fairly robust health. A fall, in his house, appears to have been 
the beginning of a breakdown of vital energies. His biography, 
notes for which were, after much urging, contributed by him- 
self, appears in the Society's 1914 report. Mr. Pearce was a 
highly esteemed member of this Society, in which he took keen 
interest. He retained vigor and tranquilty of mind to the end. 
Shortly before his death he expressed himself, to an old-time 
pupil, visiting him, as satisfied with his life's work, which 
had greatly interetsed him, and as ready to pass beyond earthly 
things, now that his work was done. In the educational history 
of Waterloo County the name of Thomas Pearce will remain 
among the few of highest distinction. 

Before going to press, Mrs. Pearce, wife of Thomas Pearce, 
has also died, December 17th. 

The newspaper history of Waterloo County, spoken of in 
my address of last year, will still have to hold over. 

The first settlers in what became Waterloo Township, 
Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, arrived in the spring of 
the year 1800. Schoerg 's wife was Betzner 's sister. She was 
twice married, first to a brother of Schoerg, who died in Penn- 
sylvania, by whom she had one son, Samuel, who settled about 
two miles south of Breslau in 1815. There, in 1832, was born 
the Eev. A. B. Sherk, now of Toronto, who is with us and has 
kindly agreed to give us Reminiscences of Waterloo County 
this evening. He well remembers his granduncles (his grand- 
mother died earlier), the settlers of 1800, and thus spans the 
entire period, one hundred and fifteen years, of the history of 
Waterloo County. 

Probably the most widely known boys' school in Canada 
in its day was the Gait Grammar School under Dr. Tassie. One 
of Dr. Tassie 's early pupils, and inmate of his house for four 
years, Mr. James Kerr of Gait, now one of the Vice-Presidents 
of this Society, will give us a paper on the renowned Tassie 's 

The final paper on our somewhat ambitious programme 
for this evening is by a former, and at the time of his story 
very youthful, member of the Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto, 
who will tell us of the Battle of Ridgeway. Captain McCallum 
has been for many years a resident of New Hamburg. 


Recollections of Early Waterloo 

(By Rev. A. B. Sherk) 

In. 1791 by British Act of Parliament, Canada was made into two 
Provinces. To the eastern division it gave the name of L#ower Canada, 
to the western the name of Upper Canada. Gen. John Graves Simcoe 
was appointed the first Governor of the New Province of Upper Canada; 
and he opened the first Parliament of this Province Sept. 17, 1792, at 
Newark, now Niagara-on-the-Lake. This Parliament was made up of 
sixteen members, a proof that considerable progress had already been 
made in the settlement of the country. But the settlements were along 
the great rivers and lakes, while the back country remained a dense 
forest. The first settlers were largely made up of strict U. E. Loyalists; 
that is, men who had fought for the British Crown in the revolutionary 
struggle. No sooner had a government been organized when it began 
to dawn on the people south of the boundary line that the new Pro- 
vince was a vast territory of fine forests and rich soil, with a climate 
quite as mild as the best sections of the New England States. Soon 
many crossed the line and settled in the new country. Some came as 
adventurers, as is always the case under similar circumstances, but 
large numbers came to select land and build homes for themselves. 
The Pennsylvania Germans belong to this class. Some of these came 
to the Niagara Peninsula directly after the close of the Revolutionary 
war, and before the end of the eighteenth century had comfortable 
homes in this district. These homes became stopping places for those 
who came later. We mention the names of Christian Hershey and 
John Miller (known as Johnny) as two of these early stopping places. 
Their homes fronted the Niagara River, within a few miles of the 
present town of Bridgeburg. My venerable grandfather found a shelter 
for himself and family in a vacant house of Christian Hershey, from 
the Fall of 1799 to the Spring of 1800. 

We have not been able to learn the year when the first Pennsyl- 
vania Germans found their way to York County, but It was early in 
the century, for one Casper Sherk settled in the Township of Markham 
in 1804. Still others may have preceded him. There is no doubt about 
the Waterloo settlement. In the spring of 1800, one hundred and 
fifteen years ago, the two pioneers, Samuel Betzner and Joseph Sherk, 
found their way to the wilderness of Waterloo, and selected homes on 
the Grand River, the one opposite Doon, the other at Blair. 

Waterloo was the first colony in the interior of Upper Canada and 
was, at one time part of the Mohawk Reservation. This Reservation 
took in six miles on each side of the Grand River from its mouth at 
Lake Erie, to the Falls at Elora. This was first arranged by Governor 
Haldimand with Captain Brant in 1784. "Another Reserve was 
assigned the Mohawk tribe of Indians on the Grand River by Governor 
Simcoe on the 14th January, 1793." (Reed's Life of Simcoe, P. 143). 
Probably the Simcoe deal is the present Reservation. Soon after this 
the tract of land later called Waterloo came under the control of a 
Mr. Beasley, by whom it was put on the market. To reach this dictrict 
the two pioneers had to go from Ancaster to Brantford and then follow 
the Indian trail along the Grand River for 30 miles. In looking back 
at the courage of the two Pennsylvania Pilgrims we are impressed 
that they were led by a Divine hand. Here they brought their wives 
and children, conquered unnamable difliculties, and in the course of 
years secured comfortable homes. Later in the year 1800 a few more 
families took up land in the infant settlement and added to the cheer 
of the two who had preceded them. Each year the number increased, 
and at the end of ten years Waterloo had already a large thriving 
colony of Pennsylvanians. The growth continued, for years there was 
a steady inflow of settlers from the old Key-Stone State, and by the 
end of the first quarter of a century the Waterloo settlement had 

13 - 

become one of the largest, most thriving and most influential in the 
Province of Upper Canada. 

Now a few more words about the two pioneers. Betzner, who at 
first located at Blair, sold his farm after some years, moved to the 
Township of Flamboro West, within a few miles of the Town of 
Dundas. Here he lived in comfort and plenty, loved and honoured for 
his Christian nobility, and died when he was up in the eighties. Sherk 
lived on the farm he homesteaded till 1855, when, at the age of 86 he 
passed joyfully to his heavenly rest. Sherk was both uncle and step- 
father of my father, whose mother he married after the early death, in 
Pennsylvania, of my grandfather. Betzner was my grandmother's 
brother, and therefore also my father's uncle. As a boy and a young 
man, I knew the old patriarchs well, loved and revered them, but I 
never heard them refer to the part they had taken in opening up this 
great country. They were too modest and simple hearted to think they 
had done anything beyond the ordinary. They came here as home- 
seekers, found homes, enjoyed them, teft the legacy of spotless lives 
to their descendants, and that was enough. 

We will now look at a few of the diffi(;ulties from which young 
Waterloo had to suffer, 

(a) In the very infancy of the colony (1803) the settlers learned 
that the land for which they held Deeds was under Mortgage. The 
discovery unsettled matters for a while. The Richard Beasley Tract, 
of which their farms formed a part, had an area of a little over 94,000 
acres, against which there was a Mortgage of $20,000. This was an 
enormous sum at that time, and these settlers knew unless it was 
soon met, the debt must strangle the young colony. They were of the 
Mennonite faith, and after much counsel they decided to send a dele- 
gation of two to the churches of Pennsylvania and ask their help. 
Joseph Sherk and Samuel Bricker were chosen. For some time they 
got no encouragement, and Sherk returned to his home in Waterloo, 
utterly discouraged. Bricker, who was of a different temper, decided 
to stay longer, and lay the case before his brethren in Lancaster 
County. Here a church meeting was called, the situation fully 
discussed, and it ended in the organization of a Joint Stock Company, 
and the amount needed was subscribed before the church meeting 
adjourned. Then the Stockholders generously provided a horse and 
buggy (primitive style), and a young brother was chosen to accompany 
Bricker on his return to Canada. The money, all in silver dollars, 
was packed in little sacks, placed in the buggy, carried 500 miles 
through the wilderness, paid over to William Dickson of Niagara, the 
Mortgage cancelled, and 60,000 acres was taken over by the Lancaster 
Company of Pennsylvania. This was in May, 1904. Once more there 
was joy in the hearts of the struggling settlers of early Waterloo. 

(b) Another difficulty was the war of 1812 with its dark shadow. 
Of course this stopped the migration of Pennsylvanians while the war 
lasted, and arrested its growth. As Mennonites they were non-com- 
batants in faith, but at the same time in sympathy with British insti- 
tutions. Indeed some of the older ones were legitimate British subjects, 
being born before the Revolutionary war. At any rate none of them 
were ever accused or even suspected of disloyalty to the country. 
Some have proposed to call them late U. E.'s, but perhaps it would be 
better to call them non-combatant U. E.'s. Their loyalty was tested, 
and found to be genuine. 

(c) The war was followed by summer frosts. In 1816 there were 
frosts every month of the summer, and this left th€ people little to live 
upon. Eby, tlie historian, says the frosts of the summer of 1817 were 
nearly as destructive as those of the previous summer. But by this 
time the colony had a good deal of strength, and the people were 
prepared to help those who were in want, and so the trouble passed 
over without extreme suffering or actual want. It was not like the 
year some time previous to this called the "hungry year," when there 
was actual starvation in the Niagara District. 

By these preliminary remarks I have just been preparing the way 



to give some recollections of early Waterloo. In these reoollections I 
will take you back 75 years, when I was a lad of eight years. I shall 
specially emphasize the part the Pennsylvania Germans took in the 
settlement, growth and development of Waterloo. Allow me to say 
that they were the only element in what is now the County of Waterloo 
till 1816. In that year Scotch settlers began to take possession of the 
Township of Dumfries. They had for their leader Absalom Shade, 
agent for William Dickson. Mr. Shade was also a Pennsylvanian. He 
remained in Gait, became wealthy, sat in the Upper Canada Assembly, 
and died when far on in years. 

European Germans began to come into Waterloo about the begin- 
ning of the second quarter of the 19th century, but they were mostly 
tradesmen — tailors, shoemakers, masons, etc., and usually settled in 
the villages; yet they became an Important factor in the growth and 
development of the industrial life of Waterloo. 

My recollections of Waterloo relate mostly to the country life, 
which was then a life of almost primitive simplicity. Indeed it was 
the simple life and to a large extent still life in the "bush." 

In early Waterloo the farms were usually large, containing two, 
three, and even four hundred acres. On these farms there were com- 
monly large clearings made in the course of years, and still large areas 
of wilderness left over. We might say there was a farm and a wilder- 
ness on the same lot. My father's farm, taken up by him in 1815, about 
two miles south of what became Breslau, where I was born in 1832, 
consisted of 348 acres in one block. Perhaps there were 125 acres 
cleared, it may be more. Still there was bush to the north, bush to the 
east, bush to the south, with the Grand River as the boundary to the 
west. The buildings were located on the south end of the farm; and 
probably within 40 rods of the river on the brow of the slope; but 
there was not a neighbor's building in sight. Sometimes we could 
hear a neighbor call his dog; and in summer time we could often hear 
the dinner horn of neighbors. But then the denizens of the forest 
helped to make things lively for us. At certain seasons of the year, as 
nightfall came on we might hear the yelp of the fox, the hooting of 
the owl, and the howl of the wolf. In summer time the music of the 
feathery songsters was fine, and we music-loving boys enjoyed it. Our 
location and condition were typical of many others in the Waterloo 
colony. There was isolation, but we boys did not seem to realize it. 
There was one thing that greatly relieved the situation, the public 
road on the east side of the river ran through our farm, and we daily 
saw the teams going to and from market, early and late. 

Farm life then differed greatly from farm life now. Farmers were 
then, as it were, making farms. Now they are made. Then they 
usually added a few acres to their clearing each year by cutting down 
and removing the timber. In those days there was very little market 
for firewood, even when it was cut into cord-wood. Some helped their 
income by turning hard wood into charcoal. For this there was then 
some market among waggon makers, tinsmiths, and blacksmiths, for 
"Stone Coal" as it was called had not yet come into use in our 
country. Indeed it was not needed. When the timber was removed 
by burning it up, one crop of grain as a rule was raised on the new 
clearing, then it was "seeded down," and left in sod for five or six years 
to let the roots of the stumps rot. Then the stumps were removed, 
which was to some extent a second clearing. To have a fully cleared 
farm in a bush country meant years of working, and watching, and 

Farm work in the early days was hard work, and we expected 
it would remain so; no one then dreamed of running a farm by 
machinery. The tools for the hay and harvest field were the scythe, 
the hand rake, the pitch fork, the sickle and the cradle. Longer hours 
and more men were then needed to do the work and gather the fruits 
of the summer; we worked early and late, that is how we got along. 
The threshing of the grain was left for Fall and Winter. This was 
more tedious than the harvesting, but I will not go into details. 


Let us now turn aside a little from what you might call the slow- 
ness and dullness of old farm life, and observe that there was activity 
and enterprise in other directions. The mills, grist and flouring, were 
a marked feature of the times, and did much to help on the country's 
development. In this city (Berlin) you have a suburban trolley run- 
ning to the village of Bridgeport, This reminds me that 75 years ago 
Bridgeport was a great business place; indeed I have been told it did 
more business than the then village of Berlin, Jacob Shoemaker was 
the active spirit in the business life of the place. He had a large grist 
and flouring mill, sawmill, woollen mill, oil mill and general store. 
There were also a store and other business interests on the other side 
of the Grand River, indeed the east side was called Bridgeport, and 
the west side Glasgow. I remember when Shoemaker had two teams 
constantly on the road taking flour to Dundas, the nearest shipping 
port, a distance of 35 miles or more. But there were many other mills, 
probably as good as the Glasgow Mill. There was Snyder's Mill at 
Waterloo, Fisher's Mill on the Speed, Erb's Mill at Preston, Bowman 
and Bechtel's Mills at Blair, the Doon Mill, the Aberdeen Mill, the 
German Mill, the St. Jacob's and Conestogo Mills. These mills were 
all run by water power, and were among the best mills on the con- 
tinent. The old mills prove to us that there was business ability and 
enterprise in the Pennsylvania Germans of early days. 

To get the grain and flour to market required many teams; indeed 
the teams did then what the railways do now. This made lively times 
on our great thoroughfares. The way to market was the macadamized 
road from Preston and Gait to Dundas. At certain seasons of the year 
one could count teams by the score going to market with the product 
of the farm or the mill. And along this line of travel there was a 
public house every few miles, the proprietors of which did a thriving 

Let us come back to early farm life again. On every farm of any 
size there was always a flock of sheep. The sheep were a necessity, as 
the wool was required for the clothing and bedding of the family in 
winter time. The farmer's sheep had to be looked after with great 
care, folded at night, and watched by day, lest a sly wolf should destroy 
some of the flock. Farmers also had to raise a crop of flax yearly for 
summer clothing and bedding. To get the woollen goods ready for 
winter use was a part of the summer's work and to get the linen goods 
ready for the summer use was part of the winter's work. This called 
for much hard work by the men and women that the farmers' families 
do not need to do these days. 

Then in early winter the itinerant tailor would come to the houses 
of the people and make up the woollen garments for the family. For 
this work he got 75 cents a day and his board. A seamstress was- 
commonly employed for the women, and was thought to be well paid 
at $1.50 a week and board. Those were cheap days, but the people 
were well satisfled and prospered. 

There were very few boots and shoes sold in the stores in the early 
days. In the fall of the year when the leather was brought home from 
the local tannery the itinerant shoemaker would be notifled that he 
was wanted. At the set time he would appear with his kit of tools and 
make up the boots and shoes for the family. These home-made boots 
and shoes were substantial and did good service. The shoemaker's 
remuneration was about the same as that of the tailor. 

The early Waterloo men had a good deal of mechanical skill. 
Probably this was born of necessity. Most of them could make a 
harrow (wooden of course), replace a broken plow beam (also wooden), 
make a gate, and do most of the repairs needed about the home. The 
axe, the saw, the auger, with the square and a few chisels were their 
principal tools. They believed in and practised self-help. 

One of the notable features of early Waterloo was the fine farm 
buildings, especially the barns with their basement stables. These 
barns were usually built against a side hill, and for this reason, I 
presume, were called "bank barns." I am told the Idea came from 


Switzerland, and some call them "Swiss barns." Sixty years ago one 
would find very few of these barns outside of a Pennsylvania com- 
.munity, but now they are common among the best farmers of our 

Let us now look at the intimate connection of the Mennonite 
Church with Waterloo history. The Pennsylvania colony that took 
possession of Waterloo was distinctly a Mennonite colony. By this I 
mean it was mostly composed of members and adherents of that church. 
I would not say that there was a prearranged plan to have it so, the 
movement was doubtless quite spontaneous. As the colony grew the 
church grew, and to meet the wants of the people substantial houses of 
worship were put up in every part of the Township, and in many 
districts in other townships. Indeed, for many years the Mennonites 
were the predominating Christian element among the Waterloo Penn- 
sylvanians and their descendants. Their public services for several 
generations were all in German. This left the English-speaking 
settlers untouched so far as church service w^as concerned, and was 
doubtless a mistake. 

The first Mennonite minister in Waterloo was .Joseph Beehtel, 
who settled here in 1802. Benjamin Eby became Bishop in 1812, and 
was the guiding spirit of the denomination for many years, not only 
in Waterloo, but in Canada. The Bishop was a great friend of the 
Public School, and for many years taught school. His name is inti- 
mately associated with Waterloo during the first half century of its 

Here I am impressed to say that the Pennsylvania Germans of 
Waterloo have a history peculiar to themselves. When they came to 
this new country they brought with them no pet political notions that 
they were anxious to propagate; indeed this was far from their 
thoughts. They came here to choose homes, to be true and loyal 
citizens of the country, to be, as Paul advises, subject to the powers 
that be. These people knew that British law recognized their dis- 
tinguishing peculiarities as it did those of the Quakers, and they were 
welcomed to the citizenship of the country. And I am glad to say they 
have never forfeited the confidence with which they were received. In 
life and conduct they looked for the highest moral ideal, found this 
ideal in the teachings of our Lord and sought to live up to it. All must 
admit that their aim was right. How near they came to their ideal, 
it is not for me to say, but I do know that their impress is left on the 
history of this country. Their simplicity of dress and manner, their 
industry, their frugality, their honesty, their enterprise and their love 
of righteousness, have given them an infiuence and a prestige that will 
tell on future generations. 

The Waterloo pioneers were anxious that their children should 
at least have the simple rudiments of an education. Ebv, the historian, 
says a school was opened in 1802, where the Village of Blair is located. 
Prom this on the settlers were never without schools, although it was 
a great struggle to find teachers and rooms for scholars, and to pay 
teachers, small as the pay was. I remember when ten and twelve 
dollars a month was considered big pay for a teacher. Then the rule 
was for him to board around at the homes of the scholars. The summer 
term of a few months was usually taught by a lady. The text books 
were Webster's Spelling Book, New Testament, Murray's Eng3ish 
Reader and Daboll's Arithmetic. German reading and writing were 
also taught when we had a teacher qualified to do so. The German 
text books were a spelling book and the New Testament. When 
Grammar and Geography were first introduced in our school (No. 15) 
it was thought by some to be a needless innovation. 

But the transition to better schools and better teachers was bound 
to come in conservative Waterloo, and in my mind there are three 
names intimately associated with this transition: Amos Adams, 
Leander Brown and Benjamin Burkholder. I knew them all. Just 
what their scholastic attainments were I am not able to sav, but I am 
sure they understood good English and knew how to teach" it. Of the 


early history of Adams and Brown I know very little, but I know that 
they gained a high reputation as teachers, and greatly helped the cause 
of education in Waterloo just at the time when it needed such help. We 
know more about the early history of Burkholder. He was born in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1814, and was brought to Canada 
by his parents when four years old. He learned the trade of a printer 
and followed it for some time. Later Burkholder began his life's work 
as a teacher, and continued in the work till well on in years. He had 
the advantage of knowing the German as well as the English, which 
greatly helped him in his work. I am glad to pay this tribute of 
respect to the memory of these pioneer teachers. It seems sad that 
both Adams and Brown were suddenly taken away just as they had 
rightly entered upon their career of usefulness. 

I will here add a word for the defunct Rockwood Academy which 
I attended in 1851 (often walking home, about twenty miles, Friday 
evening and back Monday morning.) Its gifted teacher, noble William 
Wetherald, the Quaker, did much, more than sixty years ago, to help 
a number of Waterloo boys in their struggle for an education. It was 
at Rockwood we learned to know the boy J. J. Hill, who has for many 
years been the greatest railway magnate in the American West. 

A few names of men, professional and non-professional, who were 
prominent in early Waterloo suggest themselves. One was Squire 
Scollick, of Preston, whom everybody knew, for he did most of the 
marrying before the local clergy could legally do that service. Then 
there was Dr. Scott of Berlin and Dr. Folsom of Preston. These 
doctors did most of their outside professional work on horseback, and 
everybody knew them. To the above names we add the name of 
George Clemens, a well-known character in early days. We may speak 
of him as the successful farmer, the shrewd financier and the honor- 
able business man. He was admired for his ready wit and cutting 
sarcasm. Eby says he "drove the first horse team that ever came 
through the Beverly Swamp." I also name Mr. Dodge, a kind of pre- 
historic character, who was one of the three fur traders that preceded 
the pioneer settlers. He took up a lot on the Grand River a little below 
Blair and lived to be nearly a hundred years old. 

We remember a few old structures that were a part of Waterloo 
early history. One was the "Toll Bridge" over the Grand River at 
Freeport. Every man that drove a team across the bridge had to pay 
for the privilege and even a foot-man had to pay two cents to walk 
across. Another historic structure on the Grand River was the 
covered bridge at Blair. It had a roof over it after the manner of the 
bridges in southern Pennsylvania. The "ice jams" in the Grand River 
swept these old monuments away long years ago. 

I must now name the Press as one of the great factors that helped 
the development of early Waterloo, but it did its work wholly in the 
German tongue. I find there was a succession of German newspapers 
in Berlin and Waterloo Village, (a) The earliest paper was called 
"Canada Museum." It was issued at Berlin in 1835 and continued for 
five years. The editor and proprietor was H. W. Peterson, (b) Con- 
temporary with the "Museum" was the "Morgenstern." The proprietor, 
editor and printer of the "Morgenstern" was Benjamin Burkholder. Its 
home was a little beyond the Village of Waterloo, and it lived for two 
years, 1839-1841. (c) Henry Eby and Peter Enslin bought the "Mor- 
genstern" press and began the issue of the "Deutsche Canadier" in 
1841. The "Canadier" was well patronized by the German-speaking 
population, and did good work. 

Preston came later with a succession of three German papers: 
(a) The first was called "Canadischer Beobachter," and made its 
appearance in 1848. After two years it was transferred to New Ham- 
burg. Martin Rudolph was connected with the "Beobachter" both at 
Preston and New Hamburg, (b) Then came the "Bauernfreund" in 
1853, with Abram A. Erb as proprietor and Martin Rudolph as editor. 
It also had a short history, (c) A third paper which took the old name 


of "Beobachter" was issued in 1858 by Wm. C. Schlueter. Like its 
predecessors, its history was short. 

This list shows a commendable enterprise in the right direction. 
The weekly visits of the local paper in the early times gave the people 
a new vision of things at home; but it also gave them a new and 
better view of things abroad. A good measure of praise is due the 
press for Waterloo's growth and prosperity. 

In this paper I have confined my remarks chiefly to the early life 
of Waterloo Township, for this was and is yet the great centre of the 
Pennsylvania Germans and their descendants. I am sure the old 
fathers made a happy choice when they selected this section in which 
to plant a new colony. And, on the other hand, the new Province of 
Upper Canada was happy in securing such quiet, industrious, patriotic 
and wide-awake citizens as the Pennsylvania Germans proved them- 
selves to be. They put their heads, their hands and their hearts to 
work to build up a prosperous community; and the foundation stone 
of this community was practical Christianity. I do not think I have 
overestimated their work or their worth. 

But in the course of years there came a change. Other elements 
found their way Into conservative Waterloo. The little villages of 
75 years ago have grown into stirring towns and cities, alive 
with industrial energy and activity, the fruit of a higher type of 
civilization. Let the new Waterloo keep to the old foundations, then 
her prosperity and safety are assured for all time to come. 


Recollections of My Schooldays at Tassie*s 

By James E. Kerr, Gait 

It was in August, 1859, that my father, who then lived in Doon, 
sent me, a lad of twelve years, to the Grammar School at Gait. With 
the exception perhaps of Upper Canada College it was regarded as the 
best Preparatory School in the Province. This enviable reputation 
which it had acquired was entirely due to the merits of its headmaster, 
Mr. William Tassie, an M. A. of Toronto University, and afterwards, in 
1871, honored with the degree of LL.D., conferred upon him by 
Queen's College, Kingston. Mr. Tassie was Principal of the school 
for twenty-eight years. 

During the Tassie regime the school was much more than a local 
institution, for thither came from all parts of Canada and even 
distant places in the United States boys whose parents were desirous 
that their sons should receive the best educational training then avail- 
able. In order to accommodate this large influx of pupils the Head 
Master found room in his own house for about forty boys, and about 
fifty or sixty were placed in houses in the town. 

During the four years of my attendance at the school I boarded in 
Dr.Tassie's house. Though one of the largest houses in the town, for 
forty boys the accommodation was somewhat limited. A play-room 
was much needed, but, as the necessity of such a room had not been 
foreseen when the house was planned, we were obliged to betake our- 
selves to our bedrooms when the inclemency of the weather or other 
reasons prevented us from seeking recreation on the play-ground. 
The noise we made in our dormitories frequently brought us into 
trouble with Dr. Tassie, whom I am sure we very often disturbed, but 
who I think was not very severe with us considering the provocation 
we must have given him. 

In Mrs. Tassie we found a never-failing friend. I shall never 
forget the kindness she showed to us, and I am glad that this 
opportunity is given me to pay this long-delayed tribute to her goodness 
of heart. When we were sick she nursed us with a mother's care. If 
we had coughs or colds she administered to us gruel or swathed our 
necks with hot cloths. To purify our blood she would dose us with 
sulphur and treacle. For every ailment she had some old-fashioned 
remedy. In person Mrs. Tassie was above the medium height and 
slight, the face pale, the hair dark, and the eyes black and piercing. 
Her voice was pleasant. She spoke with a slight brogue which 
betrayed her Irish birth. At nineteen she had married the handsome 
young teacher, who was the same age as herself, and sailed off with 
him to make her home in the wilds of Canada. Some people have said 
that it was a runaway match. I think this statement is not correct. 
At any rate the marriage turned out a happy one. Mrs. Tassie's 
maiden name was Sarah Morgan. She was a daughter of William 
Morgan, Dublin, and grand-daughter of Peter Burchell of Kilteel Castle, 
County Kildare. She died in Peterboro' in 1895. 

At seven in the evening we were called in from our games to 
prepare the lessons for next day. I usually spent the larger part of my 
time puzzling out with the aid of a lexicon the twenty or thirty lines 
of Virgil or Horace which had been assigned for study. The trans- 
lation was undertaken first, then the construction of the sentences, 
and lastly the division of the lines into metrical feet. Our translations 
were very bald and literal. Dr. Tassie made no attempt to show us the 
thought of the author or to point out the beauties of his style and the 
stress and strain of our endeavours to get the barest translation to 
hang together so as to make sense prevented us from seeing the 
felicities of diction of the author. There was no continuity about the 
translation. We did not go back to pick up the thread of the 
narrative that had been dropped the day before. Minute attention 
was, however, given to points in grammar or quantities in scansion 
and to the mythological allusions which were profusely scattered over 


the text. The fortunes of the gods and goddesses, demi-gods and 
heroes, with their parentage, fightings, deeds and labors had to be 
memorized. While busy with our lessons the Master watched us 
closely, either from his desk or in walking about the room, to see if 
any were idling or scheming. At nine o'clock with a sigh of relief, 
though with a secret dread of the ordeal which awaited us on the 
morrow, we put our books back into our satchels, and after the 
reading of a portion of Scripture and prayer we were dismissed. 

On Sunday we all attended the Church services. More than half 
of the boarders were Episcopalians. Dr. Michael Boomer was the 
English Church clergyman. I can recall nothing of his preaching, 
but I remember that he was a very fine reader. His reading of the 
Prayer Book and of the Scripture lessons was the best that I have ever 
heard. Old Knox Church which I attended was an exceedingly plain 
barnlike structure. In it the ideas of the old Scottish reformers in 
reference to church building had been carried out with a faithfulness 
that would have pleased the iconoclasts of John Knox's day. 

Instead of a full holiday on Saturdays, Dr. Tassie thought it 
better to give us half holidays on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. 
Our amusements in summer were chiefly bathing and boating. 
The boys who were learning to swim went to the Mill Creek where 
the water was comparatively shallow, but when they were able to 
swim perhaps fifty yards they were allowed to bathe in the river near 
the school where the water was deep. Fortunately no drowning 
accidents ever occurred. Dr. Tassie had one or two rowboats for 
the use of the boarders, and many a half-holiday we spent upon the 
river which for a mile or more above the school was deep enough for 

In winter our chief amusement was skating. There were no 
rinks either open or closed, but when the ice was good on the 
river no more charming place could be found than on its glassy surface 
for the pursuit of our favorite pastime. In winter also we 
had sledding on some of the hills, and when the snow was soft we had 
snowballing. A standing feud existed between the town boys and us. 
They called us "Tassie Apes," and we retaliated by shouting "Baikie 
Apes," a Mr. Baikie being at that time Principal of the Central School. 
Many were the fights that occurred, when fists and sometimes even 
stickfi and stones, were used. 

Fights occurred among the schoolboys in those days as I suppose 
they do now. Every new boy had to have one or two of them 
before his position in the school was settled. After that it was only 
once in a long while that he had to assert his manhood, though, as it 
has been in the Balkans, war might break out at any time. Dr. Tassie 
did not countenance fighting, but I have an idea that he was secretly 
pleased when a boy whom he did not like received a thrashing from 
another boy. Perhaps he thought it might have a more salutary 
effect than if administered by himself. As a rule he kept out of the 
way when a fight was on. He appeared to act on the theory that little 
differences were best settled by the boys themselves in a fair standup 
fight without the interference of the teacher, the consequences of which 
interference are generally worse than if the fight has been allowed to 
go on. He trusted to the bystanders to see that there was no foul play 
and to the fighters themselves, for there had grown up among the boys 
a love of fair play. According to the rules of the game, after two boys 
had fought they shook hands and were friends again. Some years 
after I left school (I have the story from another "old boy") a fight 
took place in the gymnasium after the school was dismissed, and one of 
the two chief performers got the worst of it, as often happens How- 
ever, when the game was called off he went up to his antagonist to 
congratulate him and offered him his hand. The other fellow with a 
It^^l turned on his heel and went out, upon which there arose such a 
i ^ of indignation among the boys at this boorish conduct that the 
offender had to leave school the next day and never returned 

Our outdoor games were cricket, football, and baseball;' lacrosse 


had not yet been heard of. Cricket was the only one of these that 
required much skill and the only one that Dr. Tassie regarded with 
any favor. He never took any part in our games; that would have 
been beneath his dignity, but when a cricket match was on, especially 
when our boys were opposed by a heavier team, he was often an 
Interested, though always a silent, spectator of the game. He liked to 
see his boys undertaking hard things, and if they put up a good game 
when the odds were dead against them it pleased him very much. He 
did not show his pleasure openly. It was only by some little remark 
or question at the tea-table that we could tell that the playing of the 
boys had satisfied him. He admired pluck, endurance, and skill. He 
favored cricket because as we played it there was never any squabbling 
over the decisions of the umpires, because there was a generosity and 
love of fair play among the players, a good hit or a fine catch 
being cheered by both sides, and because the game was free from the 
rowdyism that had already crept into some other games. In short, he 
looked upon cricket as a gentlemanly game and it was his object to 
make us gentlemen. 

Much to my own mortification and disgust though I often practised 
cricket I "could never attain to any proficiency in it. I was always a 
very poor player. I cannot tell why this was so, for the steady appli- 
cation I gave to the game seemed to deserve success. I was never good 
at games of skill; some boys are like that. 

Our playground was a large field just south of the ground now 
occupied by the C. P. R. station and tracks and east of North Water 
Street as it ascends the C. P. R. hill. It was leased by the Town Cricket 
Club, but we were allowed to make use of it for our games. 
Many famous games were played on this ground by the town team, 
which was then one of the best in Western Canada. 

The Grammar School in 1859 was a long, rather narrow, one-storey 
stone building with no pretension to style or beauty of any kind. It 
was substantial, that was the most that anyone could say for it. It 
had not even a belfry or cupola to relieve the dull monotony of its 
outline or to show that it was not some small factory or storehouse. 
It stood on the site of the present Collegiate Institute. At the back 
of the school the ground sloped rapidly down to the Grand River and 
in front of it a wide expanse of stumpy field lay between it and the 
Preston road. To the south of the school grounds no C. P. R. bridge 
or unsightly embankment then cut off from the school the view of 
the pretty little town of Gait, lying almost a mile away in the 
valley below. The school contained two classrooms separated by a 
transverse hallway. The room in the south end was used by the 
mathematical master and across the hallway was the door of the 
north room in which Dr. Tassie taught. Entering by this door the 
visitor saw to his right a row of desks at which were seated the senior 
boys, and to his left along the full length of the west wall ran a bench 
occupied by the juniors. There still remained a large open space down 
the middle of the room. Here the floor was marked in chalk with 
squares and circles which might have suggested to the visitor geometri- 
cal problems awaiting solution, but which were merely intended to 
indicate the lines along which we were to place our toes when our 
classes stood up for the recitation of lessons. Maps hung on the west 
wall and at the north end of the room there was a large black board. 
On a raised platform at that end was a table and the chair of the 

The classrooms were always crowded, and it required all Dr. 
Tassie's skill and the constant exercise of his authority to maintain 
order. To a man less expert than he in the management of boys the 
task would have been impossible. — Of Dr. Tassie's life before coming 
to Gait I know very little. He was born in 1815 at Dublin. His 
father, James Tassie, an engineer and contractor, was a descendant of 
a Scotch family, as was also his mother, Mary Stewart, who belonged 
to the Garth family. He spent his boyhood in his native city, and 
came in 1834 to Upper Canada. He taught school for some time in 

22 , 

Oakville and afterwards in Hamilton, where he lived fourteen years. 
He seems to have taken up the curriculum prescribed by the University 
of Toronto. In 18^The graduated and a little later he received his 

In 1853 he assumed the mastership of the Gait Grammar School. 
The School had been founded in the previous year and had been taught 
for a few months by a Dr. Michael Howe. That but little progress 
was made in Howe's time may be conjectured from the fact that only 
a dozen names were on the roll when he resigned. Under the rule of 
the new master the school rapidly filled up and the room in the old 
Township Hall in which the pupils met became in a short time so 
crowded that the trustees had to set about building a schoolhouse on 
a piece of land obtained from the Dickson Estate. This school formed 
the south end of the building which I have already mentioned, the 
northern extension being added in the spring of 1859. 

In the year 1859 Dr. Tassie had reached the age of forty-four. A 
man of medium height, rather stout, he bore himself with the easy 
grace of one who was conscious of his authority. He walked with head 
erect and v/ith a firm and masterful tread. His cane held lightly by 
the middle was carried more as a symbol of power than as a possible 
means of support. His whole mien was dignified and gentlemanly. 
His head was large, features refined, the forehead wide and high, 
the face cleanshaven except for a tuft of whisker under each ear. 
His black hair brushed well back from his forehead was already tinged 
w^ith grey about the temples. The nose was well shaped and had a 
slight roman curve. The lips were full and the chin well-rounded. His 
light grey eyes were large and prominent. His clear mellow voice 
had that ring about it which betokens decision of character. A slight 
clearing of the throat which had become habitual to him often oppor- 
tunely betrayed his presence or gave us timely warning of his 
approach. When things were going well and he was in a good humor 
his face was pleasant and attractive, but when he was angry it grew 
dark as a sky overcast with thunder clouds and his eyes blazed as if 
the lightning was playing in their dark recesses. Though often angry 
he never lost command of himself. That would have been a sign of 
weakness and might have been a signal for rebellion. He was a man 
whom we all feared and, though in a spirit of bravado we might call 
him "Old Bill' behind his back, we felt that he was one with whom we 
could not trifle as we sometimes did with the other masters. We 
could not but respect a teacher who had no weak points and who 
never gave us a chance for ridicule. His bearing before his classes 
was always dignified. Long experience and keen discernment gave him 
an intimate knowledge of boy nature. He never made a mista,ke in 
reading character. His explosions of anger were always justified, 
though sometimes perhaps the fault was punished with undue severity. 
Some teachers are looked upon by their pupils as friends and con- 
fidants. We never regarded Dr. Tassie in that way. He never spoke 
of himself, never let us know what his thoughts were, but dwelt 
apart, inaccessible as some mountain peak. He was an autocrat in his 
little kingdom. His will was law and admitted no question. He was 
absolutely upright and sincere. I believe his whole heart was in his 
school and that it occupied his thoughts to the exclusion of everything 
else. He was industrious,^ energetic and conscientious in the per- 
formance of his duties. He rose at five in the morning and was at 
his desk till breakfast time. I have no idea how he spent his school 
vacations, but I know that during terms he gave himself no rest. His 
title in my opinion to the gratitude and esteem in which he has 
rightly been held by his old pupils rests not on his teaching, for 
his methods of teaching were in many respects faulty, but on the 
influence he exerted on the boys in the formation of their characters. 
Manliness, sincerity, truthfulness, perseverance, diligence, thorough- 
ness, were qualities that he himself possessed, and these he succeeded 
in imprinting on the hearts and minds of scores and hundreds of boys 
who attribute whatever success they may have attained in after life 
to the training they received under Dr. Tassie. 


Experiences of a Queen's Own Rifleman 
at Ridgeway 

By Capt. Fred. H. McCailum, New Hamburg 

The Battle of Ridgeway occurred on Saturday, June 2nd, 1866, 
and on June 2nd, 1916, the fiftieth anniversary will be observed by the 
gathering on the field of as many as possible of the veterans who 
participated in that affair. It is proposed to erect a suitable memorial 
to mark the place where the invaders were met and turned back by 
our forces. Already the spot has been selected by the '66 Veterans' 
Association and the foundation for an historical monument will soon 
be laid. 

In the sixties of the last century besides the American Civil War, 
several other stirring events occurred which aroused the military 
spirit of the people. The Queen's Own Rifle corps was organized in 
April, 1860; previous to this there were several independent rifle com- 
panies in different parts of the country. There was the visit 
of H. R. H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, to Canada 
in September, 1860, the Trent affair, and the arrival here of several 
of the best Imperial regiments of regulars, most of whom had served 
in the Crimea and in the Indian Mutiny. The St. Alban's raiders 
were likely to cause trouble. Then came the Fenian troubles. 
Ireland was unhappy; sympathizers in the United States were 
numerous. There was a split in the Fenian brotherhood, and the 
American faction thought that the rescue of Ireland was impracticable, 
and at a great Convention held in Cincinnati in September, 1865, 
attended by Fenian delegates from almost every city in the U. S. A., 
it was decided to capture Canada. General T. W. Sweeny, commanding- 
officer 16th United States Infantry, was chosen to command, with a 
full staff of officers, known as the Fenian war department. "On to 
Canada" became their slogan. They had a million dollars subscription 
and 80,000 men. They drilled and chanted: 

We are a Fenian Brotherhood 
Skilled in the arts of war. 

And we're going to fight for Ireland, 
The land that we adore. 

Many battles we have won 
Along with the boys in blue. 

And we'll go and capture Canada 
Because we've nothing else to do. 

Meanwhile the Canadian Government thought it prudent to place 
several companies of volunteers at exposed points along the border, 
including Niagara, Sarnia, Windsor, Sandwich and Prescott. Early in 
March, 1866, considerable activity was observable among the Fenians, 
both in the United States and in Ireland, and a general rising on 
St. Patrick's Day, March 17th, 1866, was contemplated. Accordingly 
10,000 volunteers were ordered out for active service. The 17th of 
March passed without the anticipated attacks being made, and on the 
31st of March all were relieved from duty with the exception of the 
outposts upon the frontier. However, all were requested to drill two 
days a week at local headquarters. Meanwhile the Fenians kept up 
their drill and warlike preparations. For some days previous to May 
31st, 1866, mysterious strangers were noticed to be gathering in towns 
in the United States adjacent to the Niagara frontier. These strangers 
were all Fenians who were determined to make a sudden dash upon 
Canada, which they hoped to capture. As dawn was breaking on June 
1st, 1866, the Fenian transports started to cross the Niagara River. The 
troops consisted of one brigade of the Irish Republican Army, under 
command of General John O'Neil, a veteran soldier who had seen much 
service and hard fighting in the four years' American Civil War. Late 


on the evening previous, orders came from Ottawa to General Napier 
of Toronto to despatch troops to the Niagara frontier. About 
nine P. M. a sergeant of the company to wliich I belonged tapped my 
shoulder while I was attending a soldier's bazaar in the building on 
the corner of King and Simcoe streets, which had formerly been used 
as the Governor's residence. I remember that I was intently 
gazing at a quilt hung up, beautifully designed with patches of all the 
different colored soldiers' uniforms, the pattern being of a military 
nature. The sergeant informed me that the Queen' Own was ordered 
to the Niagara frontier and gave me a list of the names of members 
whom I was to notify at once that the regiment would assemble at 
5 o'clock next the morning at the drill shed on Simcoe Street, to 
leave afterwards for the front. The thought neiver struck me 
that I was much too young to embark upon so serious a trip. 
I was anxious to accompany the regiment. What troubled 
me most was whether my folks would object to my going. It took 
some hours to inform the members of the company, whose places 
of residence I well knew. Then I went home to bed, saying nothing to 
my people, who had retired. My uniform was at home, and at an early 
hour I quietly left the house so as to be sharp on time at the assembling 
of the regiment. One great mistake I never forgot; I did not provide 
myself with any breakfast, and did not complain to anyone that I had 
no food; the consequence was that I went across the lake to Port 
Dalhousie, a three hours' run, and from there by train to Port Colborne, 
without food. In a fast growing youth you may imagine the pangs of 

That experience was a lesson to me, and I made good use of it 
later in warning recruits under my command to take in their haver- 
sacks on going to camp a supply of food sufficient for the first day at 
least. We were served out as full an equipment as possible, including 
old-fashioned knapsack, old-style Enfield muzzle-loader rifle, 60 rounds 
ball-cartridge, haversack and water-bottle. After an hour's manoeuv- 
ring the regiment formed up and swung out of the drill shed, headed 
by the band playing: 

Tramp, tramp, tramp, our boys are marching, 

Cheer up, let the Fenians come, 
For beneath the Union Jack, we will drive the Fenians back. 

And we'll fight for our beloved Canadian home. 

The steamer City of Toronto had steam up and we soon were on 
our way across Lake Ontario, headed for Port Dalhousie. While on 
the boat several cases of Spencer carbine rifles were noticed. These 
cases v.ere opened and served out to No. 5 Company, to which I 
belonged; also four packages of cartridges containing 7 rounds, 
or 28 rounds for each man. We were not used to these rifles, or carbines. 
They were shorter than the Enfield and were a repeating rifie. On our 
arrival at Port Dalhousie we entrained for Port Colborne, where we 
arrived about two P.M. While passing St. Catharines we learned for 
the first time that about 2,000 Fenians had actually invaded Canada at 
Fort Erie that morning, and that their objective was the same place 
we were speeding for, viz.. Port Colborne. Their object was to 
either destroy valuable canal locks located there or to hold up the 
shipping that arrives there for passage through the canal. To the 
credit of the authorities the Militia were upon the ground before 
the enemy. Had there been only a few hours' delay, serious damage 
would undoubtedly have been done by the marauders from the United 
States. An early collision between our troops and the invaders, half 
way between Port Colborne and Fort Erie, checked further ingress of 
the raiders and thereby saved the country an inestimable amount of 
money by preventing the losses that would have followed had we 
allowed them to take possession of Port Colborne, and the Welland 

We were received with cheers by the inhabitants who were greatly 


excited and who had armed themselves with shotguns, and every avail- 
able weapon that they could scrape up, as they expected the Fenians 
would attack the village that day. After marching to the Custom 
House Square a large Union Jack was hoisted on a tall flag pole in 
front of the Custom House. Billeting the regiment among the residents 
was necessary, as there were no tents or commissariat arrangements 
provided for by the military authorities, 

I was billeted with a party of 15 comraides at a small frame hotel 
along the side of the canal. The portly landlord was sporting a red 
coat. After some delay a simple meal was provided. The butchers and 
bakers of the village had, in their excitement, stopped work on 
hearing that the Fenians were approaching. While having my meal 
a sergeant ordered me to fall in on picket parade with rifle and over- 
coat. Outposts had been posted a mile or so in different directions, as 
on the alertness of the outposts depends the repose of the camp or 
garrison. It was our duty to patrol from one outpost to another, during 
the whole night. About 2 A.M. Capt. Akers arrived from Chippewa with 
orders for our senior officer. Col. Booker, of Hamilton, to leave at 
daylight for Ridgeway, disentrain there, march north to Stevensville, 
and await Col. Peacock's arrival with troops from Chippewa. The 
plan was to form a juncture and then march to Fort Erie. Col. Pea- 
cock of H. M. 16th Regiment commanded the troops in the Niagara 
District. While a superior officer's orders are imperative, it seems 
that an attempt was made to ignore them, in this case. Although 
Col. Booker was senior officer at Port Colborne he was influenced 
by other officers. The result of a consultation between these officers 
was that the Queen's Own and the 13th, with two other Rifle Companies 
from Caledonia and York in Haldimand County, instead of disentrain- 
ing at Ridgeway, decided to run through to Fort Erie. With 
this object in view the tug Robb was sent around to Fort Erie with two 
small companies totalling 70 men. Col. Dennis and Capt. Akers 
accompanied them. After the tug was well out of sight, Col. Booker 
thought it wise to inform Col. Peacock of the proposed change; that 
officer immediately wired back imperative orders that the original 
plan must be adhered to, and Col. Booker did so. The result was 
disastrous to the volunteers on the tug, as they were landed at Fort 
Erie, to patrol the place while the tug patrolled the river. The 
volunteers did some good work in capturing about 60 Fenian stragglers, 
who were put on board the tug at intervals. But when several hundred 
Fenians later in the day appeared and attacked the Welland Field 
Battery and the Dunnville Naval Brigade, composing the volunteers 
landed from the tug, these were surrounded and captured after a 
severe flght. Toward the end the Canadians retired to a frame house 
which was riddled by Fenian bullets, the marks of which may 
be seen to this day. Of course Col. Dennis was at a loss to under- 
stand the non-arrival of Col. Booker as promised. This was only- 
cleared up after the fortunes of the day had been decided. 

After disentraining at Ridgeway the Queen's Own formed up, the 
13th Regiment and the Caledonia and York Companies following. No. 
5 Company Queen's Own was ordered out as the advance guard. I was 
in a leading section of this company and was in the very front of 
the whole affair. We totalled about 800 men, many of us mere 
youths, I was the youngest on the field carrying a rifle, Deing still 
under sixteen years of age; but I stood the hardships well. 

The advance guard was armed with Spencer rifles, A tube ran 
through the butt which held seven cartridges. They were repeating 
rifles, and much shorter than the old muzzle-loaders with which the 
rest were armed. We were served out with only 28 rounds of Spencer 
ammunition which did not last long, and there was no extra supply 
at hand. The leading section of the advance guard was about 
1.000 yards ahead of the main body, which had also a rear guard, 
following at about the same distance It was a beautiful June morning, 
the sun shining brightly, promising to be an excessively hot day. 
About 7 o'clock the bugle sounded the advance, under the command 


of Col. Booker. Major Gilmour was senior officer in the Queen's Own 
present; Lieut. Otter was adjutant, Lieut.-Gov. Gibson was an officer 
in the 13th Regiment, and many other prominent Canadians were 
with either one or the other regiments present on that day. When 
about two miles north of Ridgeway station we came in touch with 
the enemy. Two elderly men on horseback approached the leading 
section of the advance guard, saying that they were Canadian Govern- 
ment secret service men, and informed us that there was a body of about 
800 Fenians at the turn of the road about a mile north. They were 
told to report to Col. Booker, and went back for that purpose as we 
supposed; but as they soon reappeared and galloped past us toward 
the enemy, some of us thought that they might have been Fenian spies. 
We continued to advance until we observed the opposing forces to the 
right where the road turns toward Fort Erie. The advance 
guard, according to instructions, halted and signalled back that the 
Fenians were in sight. We could see some men on horseback, and 
bayonets and rifle barrels glistening in the sun. Our company was 
then drawn together and extended from the centre as skirmishers, 
while three other companies were extended to the right and left of us. 
Supports were formed by four other companies, thus 8 companies of 
the Queen's Own were in the field at the opening attack, the remainder 
of the column formed the main body and rear guard, some distance 
to the rear. It is said that Col. Peacock sent a second message advising 
Col. Booker that he was delayed in leaving Chippewa, and that in the 
event of meeting the enemy, he was to act upon the defensive, in order 
to give him time to arrive. Neither of the combatants had artillery. 
General Napier, Commander of the Canadian Militia, would not allow 
a battery to accompany us. If he had, short work would have been 
made of the invaders. His reasons may have been to save the guns 
until more troops could be got to the front or until the campaign more 
fully developed. We advanced through the fields as skirmishers at 
this time. We could see the Fenians advancing toward us also as 
skirmishers, not a shot had yet been fired by either side. Suddenly while 
we were on rather high ground, in the middle of a wheat field, the 
Fenians opened fire on us. With this baptism we doubled up to the 
cover of a snake fence, and there we opened fire. Our officer told us 
to sight our rifles at 600 yards. Here the first casualty occurred. 
Ensign McEachren, a very fine man, was mortally wounded; he 
belonged to our company, and was with the advance guard. The 
Fenians kept up a hot fire, and from the noise made by the bullets 
continually whistling, I often wonder how I escaped injury. As It 
was the percentage of the killed on both sides was only about one per 
cent, of those under fire, and of wounded about 5 per cent. The 
Fenians were commanded by General John O'Neil, who had seen 
four years' service in the United States Civil War. His men were 
seasoned soldiers, veterans of the same war. They knew all the 
tricks while we were novices. 

The first firing line advanced and the Fenians fell back upon 
barricades of double fences that they built up, and acted on the 
defensive. Our Spencer ammunition becoming exhausted, it was 
reported to Major Gilmour, who ordered the supports to reinforce us. 
The supports were not long in doubling into the firing line, and new 
supports were sent out to fill their places. It was now 9 A.M., and still 
no signs of Col. Peacock at the rear of the enemy, with cavalry 
if not infantry; but they were still unable to leave Chippewa because 
they had to wait until their fast was satisfied, while we left Port 
Colborne without any sign of a breakfast. The skirmishers who were 
first out now retired to the main body, and as there were no stretchers 
or bearers we carried in our wounded as best we could and always 
under a continual fire and whistling of bullets. I carried some of 
Ensign McEachren's accoutrements and followed the men who carried 
him until they laid him at the feet of the surgeons, in rear of the main 
body. While depositing his sword and belt I saw the surgeons examine 
the wound, a large one in the abdomen. I also heard him speak his 


last words, while dying. He lived about 20 minutes longer. His last 
words impressed themselves upon my youthful brain. They were: 

"Oh, Jesus, I had often dreamt of dying thus " The surgeons 

were Drs. Thorburn and May. Standing alongside were the Rev. Dr. 
Inglis, and Captain Edwards, a brave man, with tears running down 
his cheeks. (I have a photograph of our company showing Capt. 
Edwards and 51 men and officers taken just after the engagement. I 
can name them all, but nearly all have gone to their long homes.) The 
battle still raged on. Now the 13th who wore red tunics were in the 
firing line. The Queen's Own Rifles wore dark green tunics. The 
Fenians evidently thought that the red coats were British regulars, and 
here, just as they were on the point of giving way, some of their 
leaders assembled all the horses they had and appeared to be pre- 
pared to make a charge down the Ridge road. Two of our companies, 
Nos. 9 and 10, the University and the Highland companies, were doing 
good work on the flanks of the red coats. At this time an unfortunate 
mistake occurred. A bugler announced that the enemy had cavalry, 
and he was ordered to sound the call "prepare for cavalry." Col. 
Booker ordered it. Major Gilmour ordered us to form square. If this 
error had been rectified in time it would have made a great difference 
In the fortunes of the day as far as we were concerned. It was lucky 
for the Fenians that it occurred. The bugler kept on sounding and 
the red coats in the firing line asked each other what it meant. They 
waited, and another error was made when the order to reform column, 
unfix bayonets, was given. If the next command had been given us to 
advance in face of the enemy, confidence would have been maintained; 
but after hesitating, the order, "the column will retire," was given, 
then, "right about, turn," and the bugler sounded the retire over and 
over again. This confused those in the field who came in on the run, 
passing the main body in the narrow space between them and the 
fence on either side, while the main body was being retired a short 
distance to get further out of the range of fire. The Fenians saw their 
opportunity and did not allow us to get out of the range. It was now 
thought best to send out skirmishers again, and companies were formed 
up lengthwise on the road, red and black coats mixed, for all was con- 
fusion. In obeying the call of the bugle to retire, the University com- 
pany lost Mewburn, Tempest and McKenzie, three of its most brilliant 
students. They were obliged to double across a clearing under heavy 

After standing for some time formed up on the road waiting for 
orders to extend as skirmishers again, the question of sufficient ammu- 
nition was again mentioned, and it was finally thought prudent to 
retire on Ridgeway station. While doing so, individual firing by cool 
old soldiers was kept up, and the enemy evidently secured the infor- 
mation, from some of our men that were left behind wounded, and 
some who stayed with the wounded, that we expected Col. Peacock to 
arrive from Chippewa. General O'Neil wisely withdrew to Fort Erie, 
the same day, taking several prisoners and his wounded with him. He 
released all our men that night and bade them farewell. 

While he was crossing the river his barges were seized by the 
U. S. Gun-boat Michigan. They were released the next day after com- 
municating with Washington. 

The Queen's Own marched to Fort Erie the next morning, Sunday, 
June 3rd. After camping there a couple of days we entrained for 
Stratford, where we remained about three weeks, arriving back in 
Toronto toward the end of June. 

The Fenian commander gave the Canadian militia credit for 
advancing and deploying, and meeting a stubborn fire, as cool as experi- 
enced regulars. Many instances of bravery and willingness of the men 
to fight to the last ditch are recorded. Before they returned to their 
homes, Major-General Napier, who commanded the troops in Canada, 
issued an order returning thanks to the volunteers in appreciation of 
their services, and asked them to hold themselves in readiness by 
maintaining their efficiency in drill whenever they had an opportunity 


to attend for that purpose. The spirit of military enthusiasm was 
never greater in the Canadian Militia than it was in those days. 

The Fenians crossed back to the United States and were given 
railway passes to the different cities there, as many as between six 
and seven hundred being forwarded to Chicago alone, to Cincinnati' 
some three hundred, and so on. Had the initial raid not met with such 
vigorous opposition, and had the Fenians been allowed a few days to 
recruit after touching Canadian soil, a much more formidable affair 
would no doubt have developed. The Fenian recruits were veterans, 
experienced in the American Civil War, just mustered out of service on 
the completion of that long struggle and enlisted in the new cause 
before they had had time to settle down to any other occupation. 

The '66 Veterans have not yet been included in the same category 
as to Dominion land grants as the North-West and South African 
Veterans. All that has been done is the recent grant of $100 to each 
veteran of the Fenian invasion, whether he was under fire at the front 
or not. I did not receive any pay for the time I was out in 1866. The 
Government may have sent it to the regiment, and it may have been 
absorbed in the regimental fund. I did not get it. 

It may be added that the Fenians themselves were misled by their 
leaders, who offered them farms fully stocked, in Canada, if they 
would enroll in the Fenian army. This might well have been the case 
had they been successful. 

Sympathizers with the Fenians were not confined to the United 
States. There were many known sympathizers even in Canada, ready 
to rise and help the enemy, awaiting only the success of the invasion. 
Mr. John Sherk and Mrs. Seitz, recent visitors to New Hamburg, 
told me that they lived near Ridgeway at the time of the raid. The 
former's father was taken prisoner by the Fenians and his team and 
democrat wagon confiscated. His father and three other farmers were 
driving toward Fort Erie, when they saw a man with a rifle and 
bayonet, on the road in front. This man was a Fenian sentry, posted 
by their picket. Mr. Sherk and party promptly halted, and their first 
thought was to turn around; but when they saw the second sentry 
posted on the road in the rear, they gave themselves up as prisoners. 
They were liberated after the militia succeeded in checking the .in- 
vasion and driving the enemy out of the country. 

Mrs. Seitz said that their farm was only two miles away from the 
battlefield and that they were aroused by the rifie firing. They were 
greatly excited; the men drove their stock to the bush and the women 
and children carried armfuls of household goods to other places with 
a view of hiding them from the Fenians. One party emptied their 
house. They admitted that it was useless because if the Fenians had 
come, as expected, they would have had to run, and leave the goods. 
Their grief was turned to cheerfulness when they heard that the 
Fenians had retreated to Fort Erie an hour or two later, and they had 
to laugh next day when they were busy carrying their things back to 
their houses again. 

Both Mr. Sherk and Mrs. Seitz gave the militia all the credit for 
checking the invasion. The Fenians took possession of all the farm 
houses and barns along with any valuables, also horses and stock. The 
farmers deserted their places on the approach of the invading hordes. 

Captain McCallum joined the Queen's Own Rifles, Toronto, in 
October, 1864. He served in that Regiment until 1870. Moving to New 
Hamburg, Ont., he was transferred to the 29th Waterloo Battalion. He 
attended the Military School, Toronto, for thirteen weeks, obtaining 
a second class certificate of qualification; later on he attended the 
Royal School of Infantry to qualify as a field officer, but business requir- 
ing his attention at New Hamburg he did not finish his course, and 
was refused that privilege on application some time later, the reason 
given being that he had reached the age limit for Captains, and was 
not qualified for promotion. He was retired in January, 1907. Accord- 


ing to the regulations in force when he was gazetted in command of his 
company, officers serving ten consecutive years with qualifications were 
allowed to be retired with a step in rank and placed upon the retired 
list of militia officers. This was not done in his case. 

His family military record shows that his grandfather was a 
militiaman in Canada in 1812. His father seized in the rebellion of 
1837, taking part in the cutting out of the Steamer Caroline, boarding 
her and applying a torch before she went over Niagara Falls. Capt. 
McCallum wears a general service medal with 1866 bar, and a Colonial 
Auxiliary Force Decoration medal for 20 years' service with the Canada 
Militia as a qualified officer. In 1890 on returning from camp of in- 
struction he was presented with an address accompanied with an 
ebony walking stick, silver-headed, with inscription. His nephew, 
Lieut. Gerald Hamilton, has joined overseas forces and leaves with the 
Third Divisional Signal Company for England. 


Donations Received in 1 9 1 5 

News-Record, 1914; donated by Berlin Public Library. 

Berlin Daily Telegraph, 1914; donated by Berlin Public Library. 

Berlin Journal, 1914; donated by W. J. Motz. 

Old Newspapers of Waterloo County; donated by W. J. Motz. Thia 
collection comprises numbers of the Berlin Express, Daily News, first 
issues, Morgenstern, Wochenblatt, etc. 

Single numbers of the Evening Times, Daily Times, Canadische 
Kolonist, Deutsche Canadier, Deutsche Reformer, Illinois Staats- 
Zeitung, reprint of an issue of 1871, New York Evening Post, first issue 
of Nov. 16th, 1801; donated by W. J. Motz. 

Wellesley Maple Leaf, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, 1908; 
donated by H. W. Kaufman. 

Canadisches Volksblatt, 1865; donated by Daniel Ritz. 

Deutsche Zeitung, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898; 
donated by W. V. Uttley. 

Ontario Glocke, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 
1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898; donated by Estate of John Rittinger. 

Canadian Farmer, 1864, Toronto; donated by Isaac Hilborn. 

Phrenological Journal, 1861, 1862, containing numerous contem- 
porary biographies; donated by Isaac Hilborn. 

Historical Reminiscences of Gait; donated by Hugh Cant. 

Canadian Freeman, April 17th, 1828, York, U. C; donated by Rev. 
A. B. Sherk. 

Canada Museum, June 27th, 1840, Berlin; donated by Rev. A. B. 

Collection of papers, etc., 1845; donated by Capt. F. H. McCallum. 

Posters of 1865, Queen's Birthday, etc.; donated by W. J. Motz. 

Historical papers, etc.; donated by John L. Wideman. 

Waterloo County newspapers, etc.; donated by Dr. Otto Kiotz. 

The Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London, England, medal, 1886; 
donated by Berlin Public Library. 

The Tercentenary Medal of the Founding of Quebec, 1908; donated 
by Berlin Public Library. 


This interesting collection is steadily growing, and includes photo- 
graphs of prominent men of Waterloo County, and photographs con- 
nected with the military activities of Waterloo County. 

Waterloo County Council of 1889; donated by Alex. Millar. 

Volunteer Company, New Hamburg, 1886; donated by John Cook. 


Wall Map, Galine's Map, Lake Ontario, etc., 1670; donated by the 
Ontario Historical Society. 

Second Wheel of light wagon used by Samuel Bricker and Daniel 
Erb in 1804 (see 1913 list) ; donated by John Cook. 

Shell manufactured by the Canadian Buffalo Forge Co., Berlin; 
donated by A. G. McAvity. 

Shell manufactured by the Goldie-McCulloch Co., Gait; donated 
by A. R. Goldie. 

Native bag and girdle from Santo, New Hebrides; donated by 
James E. Kerr. 


List of Members 


Hon. W. G. Weichel, M. P Waterloo 

Hon. P. S. Scott, M.P Gait 

Hon. Z. A. Hall, M.P.P Hespeler 

Hon. C. H. Mills, M.P.P Berlin 

Mayor J E. Hett, M.D Berlin 

Mayor A. E. Buchanan Gait 


Wm. C. Shaw, Reeve Hespeler 

A. C. Hallman Breslau 

Samuel Cassel New Hamburg 

Wesley Erb New Dundee 

A. B. Robertson Wellesley 

John Reidel St. Clements 

Paul Snider Elmira 

Henry Brodhaecker Elmira 

John B. Bricker Ayr 

A. M. Edwards Gait 

Geo. Burgess Gait 

J. M. Jamieson Gait 

J. A. Mclrvine Gait 

George Wegenast Waterloo 

W. H. Kutt Waterloo 

E. B. Reist ,. . .Preston 

B, W. Zieman Preston 

L. E. Weaver Hespeler 

Fred. Debus New Hamburg 

John Folsetter Ayr 

William Auman Elmira 


Beaumont, E. J Berlin 

Bowlby, D. S Berlin 

Bowlby, Capt. G. H., M.D Berlin 

Bowman, Lieut. -Col. H. J. Berlin 

Bowman, H. M., M.A., Ph.D Berlin 

Breithaupt, A. L Berlin 

Breithaupt, Mrs. L. J Berlin 

Breithaupt, W. H. ... Berlin 

Bricker, M. M Berlin 

Brown, H. W., B.A Berlin 

Clement, E. P., K.C Berlin 

Dunham, Miss B. M., B.A Berlin 

Fennell, John Berlin 

Fischer, P Berlin 

Forsyth, D., B.A '. Berlin 

Green, Mrs. J. W , Berlin 


Hagedorn, C. K Berlin 

Hall, M. C Berlin 

Honsberger, J. F., M.D Berlin 

Huber, Allan (deceased 1915) Berlin 

Jackson, Miss G Berlin 

Klotz, J. E Berlin 

Knell, Henry Berlin 

Lackner, H. G., M.D Berlin 

Lautenschlaeger, R. W Berlin 

Lynn, Rev. J. E Berlin 

Millar, Alex., K.C Berlin 

Mills, C. H., M.P.P. Berlin 

Moore, J. D Berlin 

Motz, W. J., M.A Berlin 

Pearce, Thomas (deceased 1915) - Berlin 

Potter, George Berlin 

Rittinger, John A. (deceased, 1915) Berlin 

Ruby, Charles , Berlin 

Schiedel, M Berlin 

Schmalz, W. H , > Berlin 

Schmidt, G. C Berlin 

Scully, Miss Annie Berlin 

Scully, J. M Berlin 

Sims, H. J Berlin 

Smith, O. G. Berlin 

Smyth, Robt Berlin 

Spetz, Rev. Theo Berlin 

Staebler, H. L Berlin 

Wedd, G. M Berlin 

Weir, J. J. A Berlin 

Williams, S. J Berlin 

Witzel, T. A Berlin 

Zinger, Rev. A. L. . . . , Berlin 

Blake, J. R Gait 

Cant, Hugh Gait 

Clarke, Lieut.-Col. J. D Gait 

Foster, W. J. Gait 

Gundry, A. P., B.A Gait 

Kerr, James E Gait 

MacKendrick, J. N., BA Gait 

Middleton, J. F Gait 

Norman, Lambert, M.A ^ Gait 

Scott, F. Stewart, M.P Gait 

Vair, Thomas , Gait 

Wardlaw, J. S., M.D Gait 

Bauman, A. F., M.D ^ Waterloo 

Diebel, George ^ Waterloo 

Fischer, W. J., M.D Waterloo 

Foster, Arthur : ^ Waterloo 

Hilliard, Thomas Waterloo 

Playford, B. B ^ Waterloo 


Roos, P. H Waterloo 

Shuh, Levi Waterloo 

Wegenast, George Waterloo 

Weichel, William G., M.P , Waterloo 

Auman, William Elmira 

Ratz, George Elmira 

Vogt, Oscar Elmira 

Werner, August Elmira 

Richmond, Elliott St. Jacobs 

Snider, E. W. B St. Jacobs 

Snider, W. W St. Jacobs 

Snyder, Alfred St. Jacobs 

Snyder, W. H St. Jacobs 

Wideman, John L St. Jacobs 

Winkler, W. H St. Jacobs 

Debus, Fred New Hamburg 

McCallum, Capt. F. H New Hamburg 

Hanning, Judge C. R. Preston 

Reist, E. B Preston 

Shantz, P. E '. Preston 

Bricker, John B Ayr 

Watson, Alfred G Ayr 

Watson, Archie E Ayr 

Bowman, F. M Pittsburg, Pa. 

Vogt, August S., D. Mus Toronto 

Shaw, W. C Hespeler 

Mnsselman, Geo. L Conestogo 





W. H. Breithaupt 

Rev. Theo. Spetz, C. R. 

Local Vice-Presidents 
Gait - - - James E. Kerr 
Waterloo - - Chas. Ruby 
Elmira - - - A. Werner 
St. Jacobs - John L. Wideman 

Secretary-Treasurer - P. Fisher 

C. H. Mills, M. P. P. 

W. J. Motz, M. A. 

Judge C. R. Hanning 

E. W. B. Snider 


■ Page 

Annual Meeting 5 

President's Address 7 

Early History of Haysville and Vicinity 10 

The Indian Occupation of Southern Ontario 13 

Roll of Honor 24 

Biography : 

Hon. William Dickson 26 

Col. H. J. Bowman 33 

Rev. A. B. Sherk 35 

Major G. H. Bowlby „ 37 

Donations 38 

List of Members 39 

Illustrations : 

Hon. William Dickson, Frontispiece 

Col. H. J. Bowman 33 

Rev. A. B. Sherk opp. 36 

Major G. H. Bowlby...- opp. 37 




Hon. William Dickson 


Annual Meeting 

Kitchener, Oct. 27th, 1917. 

The Fourth Annual Meeting of the Waterloo Historical 
Society was held in the Museum in the Public Library on the 
above date, the President, W. H. Breithaupt, in the chair. 

Secretary-Treasurer's Report 

The regular routine work of the Society has been carried 
on as in the past years, the Third Annual Report circulated 
and acknowledgments received. An effort was made to arouse 
interest in the work in the outljdng centres of the County with 
good results. The County newspapers are to be kept on file 
and added to our records. 

During the past two years and a half a titanic struggle for 
supremacy by land and sea for national liberty and justice has 
been going on. Owing no doubt to these abnormal conditions 
few were able to devote much time to the Society's interests. 
With the close of the struggle we hope to count on a deeper 
interest among the people of the community. 

An effort has been made to collect and preserve the history 
of the struggle as it affects us. The roll of honour, inserted 
in this report, may be incomplete, but it is earnestly desired 
that omissions will be brought to the Society's notice in order 
that a complete list can be given next year. 

Red Cross Work, Soldiers' Insurance, and the Patriotic 
Fund have received considerable attention. The municipali- 
ties have contributed of their wealth to these worthy objects. 

Among notable donations to the Society's collection should 
be mentioned photographs of the 111th Battalion C. E. F., and 
of the officers, donated by the Gait City Council; a photograph 
of the 118th Battalion C. E. F., from the Colonel Command- 
ing; a water-colour reproduction of a picture of the Breslau 
bridge of 1856, donated by the Grand Trunk Railway Com- 

The Public Library Board has continued its splendid sup- 
port of the Society during 1916 in providing quarters at a 
nominal rental, furnishing cases for holding newspaper files, 
a revolving display case for photographs, and a metal filing 
cabinet for holding records. 




Balance 31st Dec. 1915 $ 29.48 

Receipts for 1916: 

Members' Fees $ 67.00 

Legislative Grant 100.00 

Waterloo County Grant 50.00 

Claim paid by G. T. Ry 6.00 

Sale of Reports of 1915 2.25 225.25 


Disbursements for 1916: 

Postage, Stationery, etc $ 22.80 

Lecture 6.50 

Advertising and Printing 36.92 

Telephone, Express, etc 3.80 

Caretaker ., 5.00 

Rent 12.00 

Secretary .: 30.00 

Fourth Annual Report, and reprint 110.00 


Balance on hand $ 27.71 

Audited. SCULLY & SCULLY, 

Kitchener, Ont., 20th Jan., 1917. 

Election of Ofl&cers. 

The officers for 1917 are: 

President W. H. Breithaupt 

Vice-President Rev. Theo. Spetz, C. R. 

Secretary-Treasurer P. Fisher 

Local Vice-Presidents. 

Gait James E. Ken- 
Waterloo Chas. Ruby 

Elmira A. Werner 

St. Jacobs John L. Wideman 

Members of the Council: C. H. Mills, M. P. P., W. 
J. Motz, M. A., Judge C. R. Hanning, E. W. B. Snider, 
Capt. G. H. Bowlby, M. D. 

President's Address 

During the year, since our last annual meeting, the Society 
has continued to add to its collection of material pertaining to 
the history of the County. One interesting item received, left 
with the Society as a loan, is the complete first volume, begin- 
ning with August 27, 1835, of the Canada Museum, the first 
newspaper published in this County. 

Owing mainly to the war still continuing, and its imper- 
ious call for attention, to the exclusion of other things, there 
has been no general meeting of the Society since our last annual 

In our annual report for this year there will appear a 
County Roll of Honour, containing the names of all those 
heroic men of Waterloo County, some of them enlisted from 
elsewhere, who have given their lives in the great cause of the 
British Empire and its allies, in the present war. 

The 118th Battalion, North Waterloo, wintered in its home 
city last winter, spent the summer in training at Camp Bor- 
den, and is now quartered in London, Ont., with prospect of 
being called for overseas service shortly. The 111th Battalion, 
South Waterloo, was also in training at Camp Borden during 
the summer. This Battalion has gone overseas for active ser- 
vice, having departed from Gait, after final home leave, on 
Monday evening, Sept. 18th. There were affecting farewells 
at the Canadian Pacific Railway Station, in the presence of a 
large multitude. Shortly after, the battalion, about 720 men 
strong, left London, Ont., for port of embarkation, Halifax. 

Local and County contributions to various war causes 
have continued liberally. They will be left to be summarized 
at the end of the war. 

An event of importance to be recorded by the impartial 
historian, is the change of the name of the City of Berlin, 
County Town of the County of Waterloo, to Kitchener, by 
proclamation of the Lieut. Governor of Ontario, on the first 
day of September this year. 

Present day history is covered by the files of County 
newspapers accumulating in the Society's collection. We are 
arranging to have, henceforth, a continuing file of all weekly 
newspapers published in Waterloo County. 

Research in the past history of the County is particularly 
the pursuit of this Society, and in this, to have our work of 
any value, our aim must be not so much volume of material 
as accuracy. 

This year is the Centennial Year of the founding of the 
City of Gait. The celebration of an event of such importance 
has lapsed, no doubt, only on account of the war with its en- 
grossing activities and preclusion of festivities. A brief sketch 
of the early history of Gait is here in order. 

On the third day of July, 1816, the Hon. William Dickson, 
of Niagara, purchased what was known as the Stedman tract, 
part of the original Six Nation Indian Grant, comprising prac- 
tically what are now the Townships of North Dumfries 
in the County of Waterloo, and South Dumfries in the 
County of Brant. Whether Mr. Dickson's attention was first 
called to this district by the Settlers from Pennsylvania, 
whose legal adviser he was as far back as 1803, when he ar- 
ranged their mortgage discharge and land purchase, is left to 
conjecture. Certain it is that the fertile Grand River valley 
became well known early in the last century. When on restor- 
ation of peace after the war of 1812, stability of conditions and 
renewed impulse of settlement, greater than before, prospects 
for the future of the country were good, Mr. Dickson decided 
to invest in lands, and his selection made him a landholder 
neighbor of the ex-Pennsylvanians. Further particulars will 
appear in a biography of Hon. William Dickson, contributed 
to our Annual Report for this year by Mr. James E. Kerr, a 
Vice-President of this Society. Portrait photographs of Hon. 
William Dickson, and of William Dickson, Jr. — born at Niagara, 
in 1799, lived most of his life in Gait, where he died in 1877 and 
is buried — ^are donated to the Society by Mrs. Pringle of 

Gait, village, town and city, has a history full of vigor and 
enterprise. It was for many years, up to 1892, the largest in 
population and the principal place of business in the County, 
and in the days before the railroads, was the trading centre for 
a large section of country, extending all the way to Goderich. 

Smith's Canadian Gazetteer, published in Toronto, in 
1846, speaks highly of the village of Gait of that time, of its 
milling of 15,755 barrels of flour, from September, 1844, to July, 
1845, its daily stages to Hamilton and Guelph, and tri-weekly 
to Goderich, its weekly newspaper, the "Dumfries Courier," 
its Curling Club, Mechanics Institute, Circulating Library, 
Fire Engine Company, etc. 

The "Dumfries Courier," begun in 1844, ceased publica- 
tion in 1847. It was followed by the "Gait Reporter," editor 
Peter Jaffray, who had been active on the Courier. The 
"Dumfries Reformer" was started in 1850, from which time 
on Gait had for many years, two weekly newspapers, repre- 
senting the two political parties. 

The population of Gait is given as "about a thousand" in 
1845, and as two thousand two hundred and thirteen in 1860. 
In 1857 it is given as thirty-five hundred. 

Dumfries Township was distinctively Scotch from the 
beginning, most of the eariy settlers having been attracted, by 
various means, directly from Scotland, by the original pro- 

The Great Western Railway, since 1882 a part of the 
Grand Trunk Railway System, whose main line, extending 
from Suspension Bridge to Windsor, was opened as far as Lon- 
don in December 1853, and to Windsor the following month, at 
once built a branch from Harrisburg to Gait. This branch was 
opened for traflEic on August 21st, 1854. The extension of the 
line to Guelph, chartered and known at first as the Galt- 
Guelph Railway, began operation three years later, in Septem- 
ber, 1857. The Great Western antedated the Grand Trunk 
Railway in operation in the County of Waterloo by over two 

Gait was incorporated as a village in 1850; then rapidly 
grew and a comparatively short time later, on January 1st, 
1857, attained the rank of town incorporation. On June 1st, 
1915, it became the City of Gait. 

This year also marks the centennial of an important event 
in the early history of the town of Waterloo. The grist mill, 
now in the centre of the town, was first built in 1816, by Abra- 
ham Erb, * who was born in Pennsylvania in 1772, came to Can- 
ada in 1806, and died in 1830. His widow married Bishop 
Benjamin Eby. Abraham Erb and wife had but one child, a 
son, who died at the age of seven. They adopted and raised 
two children, one of whom was Barnabas Devitt, grandfather 
of present Waterloo business men. 

There is to be recorded, with regret, and with expression 
of sympathy to his family, the death, on June 19th, this year, 
of Col. H. J. Bowman, Member of Council of this Society in 
which he took keen interest and was of valuable assistance 
from its beginning. A biographical memoir of Col. Bowman 
will appear in our Annual Report. 

On our program for this evening are two addresses, one on 
the Early History of Haysville and Vicinity by Mr. A. R. G. 
Smith, descendant of one of the first settlers in Wilmot Town- 
ship, Secretary of the Wilmot Agricultural Society, and gov- 
ernment lecturer at Farmers' Institutes, etc.; the other on the 
Indian Occupation of Southern Ontario, by James H. 
Coyne, LL. D., F. R. S. C, President of the Elgin Historical 
and Scientific Institute, Canadian Historian, and first authority 
on Canadian Indian History. 

We are greatly indebted to both of these gentlemen for so 
kindly coming here and giving us these interesting and valuable 

NOTE — *See Eby's Biographical History of Waterloo Township, etc. 

Early History of Haysville and Vicinity 

By Allan R. G. Smith 
Secretary Wilmot Agricultural Society 

Many changes have taken place since the road was opened from 
Hamilton to Goderich under the guidance of Surveyor McDonald. 

The tract of land known as Block "A" made up of four concessions in 
the southern part of the Township of Wilmot and a lot of land in the western 
part of Ontario was owned by the Canada Land Company. In order to 
induce settlers to come in, a road now known as the Huron Road of four 
rods width was opened. One of the pioneers told me he saw it a few years 
after and stumps were sometimes cut through the centre to make the proper 

The opening of the road was followed by the establishment of the stage 
coach drawn by four horses and carrying passengers, baggage and the Royal 

Haysville sprang into prominence as years went by. It became one of 
the chief places between Hamilton and Goderich. The stage coach changed 
horses at Haysville. One of the early settlers was William Hobson. Mr. 
Hobson came from Ireland in 1818 and settled near London. He returned 
to Ireland but did not stay long. Returning to Canada he associated him- 
self with a surveying party and went through to Goderich. Finally decid- 
ing to live at Haysville, he bought 200 acres now owned by Daniel Shantz. 
This farm had splendid pine and was sold to William Puddicombe in 1832 
or 1833. 

Mr. Hobson moved to Haysville and settled on the farm now owned 
by Mr. Wilhelm. 

Mr. Hobson built a large hotel with stabling for 125 horses. His house 
was noted for its hospitality. During the winter season the farmers of 
Perth and Huron drew their wheat or dressed pork they had to sell all the 
way to Hamilton. Hobson's hotel was one of the favorite stopping places. 
A large room with huge open fire-place made a sleeping place during over- 
flows. The men spread their blankets or robes and slept quite comfortably. 
One who had been there told me that the landlord used to bid his guests 
good-night and told them to help themselves to the spirits if they needed 
any during the night. 

Early in the forties an American, named Horn Stephens, built a saw- 
mill to supply building material. 

Farther west a Mr. Mallet had a small sawmill. My grandfather 
walked down to Mr. Mallet's sawmill a day or two after he built his shanty 
in 1838 and carried home the lumber to make a cross-legged table. He had 
his breakfast off the table and we have it now in our collection. 

From 1832 to 1836 many settlers came in to take up land. 

There were no churches or schoolhouses. Some few years after, a 
teacher named Robert Boucher taught school in a log house owned by Mr. 
William Puddicombe. 

In later years Miss Margaret Somerville, a woman of wonderful busi- 
ness ability, taught school. This lady was considered an authority on law 
and was consulted very frequently. Her advice was usually correct. 

At one time Haysville had a population of 500 people who worked at 
various trades. 

Mr. W. R. Plum, Sr., and Mr. Blatchford had large blacksmith and 
carriage shops and did a wonderful trade. 

Mr. Blatchford held an annual dinner when the season's bills were paid. 


Mr. Robert Hays was appointed Postmaster in 1837 and was succeeded 
by his son, John Hays, in 1853. 

Some of the industries were: — 

Woollen mill, managed by Mr. Yemmet and later by Mr. Woodhead. 

Tannery, managed by an American named White. 

Furniture factory, by Mr. F. Cousin. ^ 

Fanning mill factory, Robinson and Cole. 

General store, J. Sydney Smith, afterwards conducted by Miss Mar- 
garet Somerville. 

General store, W. Smith. 

General store, James Brown. 

Harness shops, Stonehouse and Fraser. 

Cooperage, Mr. Cockwell. 

Gristmill and sawmill, John Hays. 

Mill and store, A. W. Cleland. 

Drug store, Mr. Bennet. 

My honored uncle. Governor Cook, was closely identified with Hays- 
ville as a school teacher and afterwards in business as a hardware merchant. 
He can tell many interesting stories of the early days when athletic pro- 
grammes were carried out on public holidays. I believe a little horse rac- 
ing was sometimes indulged in. 

The hive of industry flourished until the Grand Trunk was built. The 
drift of trade went to New Hamburg. The population of Haysville de- 
creased. Familiar faces moved away. The stage coach disappeared and 
after the disastrous flood of 1885 not much of the original Haysville remained. 

The community decided in the early days to have a public hall. Popu- 
lar subscription built the Haysville Hall, recently remodelled and painted. 
Organizations of various kinds have held many interesting meetings in the 
hall. Haysville was always the scene of interesting political meetings. 
Many advanced ideas have been presented at the gatherings. Whether or 
not the many important advances in legislation during the past few years 
were entirely due to the ideas presented by the various candidates who appear- 
ed for support at Haysville, I am not prepared to say. Military matters 
engaged the attention of Haysville in early days. Mr. Charles D. Brown, 
one of our highly respected citizens, who for the past 58 years has been 
Superintendent of Christ Church Sunday-school, was interested as an officer 
and was largely instrumental in recruiting a good company. During the 
Fenian Raid many Haysville men were on duty at the border. 

Many tales might be told of hardships of early pioneers. In conver- 
sation some months ago with a man who knew Haysville, I was told of one 
family who came up in 1837. The boat was burned and all this family's 
belongings including hard-earned money saved to buy a home. The pioneer 
and his wife were undaunted and with their little family made their way 
from Hamilton to Gait. The head of the family had previously walked 
from Hamilton to notify his brother at Gait of their arrival. Lack of 
money prevented the purchase of oxen. The man and wife, without assis- 
tance from any one, cleared up 3 acres and sowed wheat amongst the stumps. 
This was harvested with a sickle and thrashed with a flail. The family 
stuck together and became well off. 

In the early days cholera broke out and an isolation hospital was built 
on the farm of John Brenneman, about 2 miles from New Hamburg. 

On one occasion a doctor was sent from Preston to attend the patients. 
On his way up his horse dropped dead and he returned without seeing the 
patients. Those who travel from New Hamburg to Stratford may see 
several plots on the farm of Mr. Fryfogel. This is the resting place of 
several cholera patients. 

The pioneers were sturdy men and fearless. One of the early settlers 
was very fond of spending the whole night attending his log fires. The 


family discussed the matter and it was decided that one of the sons should 
appear as a ghost clad in white during the midnight hours. This was tried. 
The pioneer, leaning on his handspike, caught sight of the spirit and action 
immediately followed. As the ghost went over the rail fence the substan- 
tial handspike used in placing logs came down beside it. The log burning 
continued undisturbed. 

The early appearance of the woods may be understood by looking at 
the photos I have with me. To-day, after 80 years, the modern farm would 
be a revelation to the early settler. Telephones, daily mail, self-binder, 
milking machine driven by electricity, silos and improvements in field crops, 
have all come by successive steps until to-day we find the Township of 
Wilmot assessed at nearly three millions. I have a piece of sewn leather. 
It is not much to look at, but it contained the gold that paid for half of a 100 
acre farm in 1838. With it I have my grandfather's purse that he carried 
with him when in 1836 he walked 1010 miles on snowshoes from Shediac to 
see the land in the wilds of Upper Canada. This purse contains a pin put 
there in 1835. 

I desire to close by referring to Haysville as we have it now. One 
of the recent organizations is the Haysville branch of the Women's Insti- 
tute. This organization has members from all churches. Their motto is 
"For Home and Country." Though only organized for a little over a year, 
this rural organization has contributed about $500.00 to Patriotic and Red 
Cross work. 

We are pleased that a number of our farm boys have donned the khaki. 
Whatever our little differences may be regarding smaller matters, we stand 
undivided in our loyalty to the British Crown. 


The Indian Occupation of Southern Ontario 

By James H. Coyne, LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

President Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute. 

Among the two and a half millions of inhabitants of Ontario, about 
21,000 are Indians. They are distributed throughout the province in 25 
agencies and 78 reserves or bands. These figures do not include the Indians 
of the new district of Patricia. About one third belong to the Iroquois, or 
Six Nations, the remaining two thirds to the various tribes of the great 
Algic or Algonquin family. 

Three hundred years ago, the territory lying between Georgian Bay 
and Lake Erie alone was occupied by a sedentary native population, esti- 
mated at more than eighty thousand, subsisting chiefly by agriculture. 
Their towns and villages numbered sixty or seventy, perhaps more. They 
had highly organized political systems. Forty years later these native 
tribes had disappeared. The peninsula became an uninhabited wilderness. 
Cabins gradually mouldered into dust. Over abandoned clearings, the for- 
est soon resumed its sway. Then after a long interval, came a new race, 
alien of colour and speech, and broke up anew the forsaken soil. In the 
woods they found numerous hill-rows, remains of ancient cornfields, which 
their ploughs soon obliterated. In the furrows they turned up many me- 
morials of a forgotten race. Bone needles, stone pipes, flint arrowheads, 
knives and axes, fragments of rudely ornamented pottery, old ash-heaps, 
were turned up in many places. Deeper spading exposed isolated graves 
and pits filled with human bones. Defensive earthworks and other arti- 
ficial mounds, covered with forest-growth of centuries, were scattered 
throughout the country, near lakes and streams. These mute reminders 
of a vanished race afforded partial answers to the ever recurring questions: 
Who were here before us? Had they a history? What became of them? 

These are the questions to be considered in this paper. Fortunately 
we are not confined to archaeological evidence. Skilled contemporary ob- 
servers have left us trustworthy written records, which enable us to form 
more or less vivid conceptions of the lives and characters of our aboriginal 
predecessors on the soil of southern Ontario. And traditions still extant 
supplement and confirm the written story in important particulars. 

Just three centuries ago, in the years 1615-1616, Champlain discovered 
and explored the Nipissing canoe route from Montreal to Georgian Bay; 
the region south of the bay; and the Trent system of lakes and rivers as far 
as Lake Ontario. At that period, the territory between Georgian Bay and 
Lake Erie was occupied by three branches of the great Huron-Iroquois 
family. Between Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe were four tribes, con- 
stituting the Huron confederacy, with an estimated population of 30,000. 
This would indicate, that the northern parts of the county of Simcoe were 
about as densely settled as they are at present. , The Huron country ex- 
tended about 50 miles from east to west by 20 from north to south. It 
included 18 villages and 2000 warriors. About thirty miles distant, where 
CoUingwood now stands, and up in the valleys of the Blue Mountains to 
the westward, were nine villages of the Petun or Tionnontates, sometimes 
known as the Tobacco Nation, a kindred race. 

Five days' journey to the southward, was the much more numerous 
race of the Attiwandaronk, called by the French, the Neutres or Neutrals. 
Their territory extended along the north shore of Lake Erie from the Nia- 
gara to the Detroit rivers, and for some distance beyond each of them. 
Northward it seems to have reached a line drawn from the neighborhood 
of Toronto to Goderich. They had 28 villages and 4000 warriors. Their 
population was estimated at much more than 30,000, but at a later period 
was reduced by smallpox to a number much smaller. 

The remainder of what is now Ontario was occupied or ranged by 
numerous Algonquin tribes, including the Ottawas, Ciuppewas, Missisau- 


jfas, Mipissines, Beavers, Crees, and many others. The Ottawas held 
Manitoulin Island and the Saugeen peninsula. 

We have to do in this paper with the nations south of the Georgian Bay, 
belonging to the Iroquoian or Huron-Iroquois family, and more particu- 
larly with that numerous and powerful branch known as the Neutrals. 

Native traditions, supported in their main features by the earliest 
explorers, show the Huron-Iroquois established early in the 16th century 
on both banks of the Lower St. Lawrence, which they occupied or controlled 
from Montreal to Quebec, and beyond. Here Cartier found them in 1534 
and later. When Champlain ascended the river to Montreal in 1603, he 
found no traces of Cartier's villages of Stadacona and Hochelaga, where 
Quebec and Montreal now stand. The Huron-Iroquois had disappeared 
from their former habitat. According to tradition, quarrels had broken 
out, and partly through internal dissension and partly through Algonquin 
pressure, the entire body had moved westward. The Hurons had retired 
to the country between Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe, the Neutrals to 
the region north of Lake Erie, and the Iroquois to that south of Lake On- 
tario. The Algonquin tribes of the Ottawa, Lake Nipissing and Georgian 
Bay, had given the Hurons a friendly reception, and entered into an alli- 
ance with them against the Iroquois, with whom they waged relentless and 
almost incessant warfare. The Neutrals took no part in the wars, and 
were recognized as non-combatants by both parties. Other branches of 
the great family inhabited the territories west and south of the Iroquois. 
The Eries occupied the country south of Lake Erie; the Andastes, or Con- 
estogas, or Carantouans, the upper valley of the Susquehanna or adjoining 
regions. The Iroquoian tribes had many features in common. Their lan- 

f;uages were dialects, mutually intelligible for the most part, of a great 
inguistic stock. As the Indian occupation of Southern Ontario is the sub- 
ject of this paper, it will be well to give in historical sequence some out- 
standing facts relating to the Neutral Nation, as recorded by Champlain, 
the Recollet Sagard, and the heads of the great Jesuit Mission among the 
Hurons, in the 17th century. 

The first white man to visit the Neutrals was undoubtedly Etienne 
Brul^, the interpreter. When Champlain marshalled the Hurons and Al- 
gonquins at Orillia, early in September 1615, to invade the Iroquois terri- 
tory it was decided to send trusty agents to inform the Carantouans of the 
upper Susquehanna, who had promised to join them in the attack with 500 
warriors. At his earnest request, Brule was permitted to accompany the 
party. Two canoes were despatched on this errand with twelve stout 
Huron warriors. They carried out their instructions, the Carantouans 
were notified, the reinforcement was sent, but it arrived too late. Cham- 
plain's expedition had failed in its object, and had already withdrawn from 
the Iroquois' country. It was three years after his departure from Orillia 
before Brul<^ returned to the French trading post and reported to Cham- 
plain his travels and thrilling adventures. His route can only be conjec- 
tured. The canoes probably reached Lake Ontario by Lake Simcoe, Hol- 
land River, and the Humber. The party expected to pass through or near 
the Seneca territory which extended some distance west of the Genesee 
River. Brul^ returned to the Hurons through the Iroquois country, and 
in 1618 accompanied them to the trading post near Montreal. Champlain 
accepted his explanation of the failure of the Carantouans to join in the 
attack, and encouraged him to continue his journeys and investigations 
among native tribes. Champlain's map of 1632 shows dotted lines appar- 
ently intended to indicate lines of travel. One shows clearly the path fol- 
lowed by the invading army from Lake Ontario to the Iroquois fort, which 
was successfully defended against his attack. The other runs southerly 
from the westerly extremity of Lake Erie to the sources of a stream, prob- 
ably the Miami, and then easterly to the three villages of the Carantouans, 
forking as it approaches their country, with one branch extending to an- 
other village, which may be either Seneca or Carantouan. This dotted line 
must be assumed to be the path followed by Brule, either going or coming. 
That Brule visited the Neutrals is certain. His glowing accounts induced 
further exploration. 


The first explorer to record personally a visit to the Neutrals, Father 
Joseph de la Roche Daillon, expressly acknowledges the effect upon his 
mind of Brule's report of the marvels of the Neutral Nation. 

Daillon was a French Recollet priest then in charge of the Huron 
Mission to which two Jesuit fathers, Brebeuf and Noue, had accompanied 
him. He had some acquaintance with the Huron language, and was eager 
in his missionary zeal to penetrate to the remotest nations. To a friend in 
France he wrote an account of his journey, which is of unique interest as 
being the first record at first hand of actual experiences and observations in 
Neutral territory. The following is a brief summary: — 

Daillon set out from the Huron country on the 18th of October, 1626, 
with two Frenchmen, Grenolle and Lavallee. A chief of the Tobacco, or 
Petun, Nation, whom they visited in the region west of Collingwood, un- 
dertook to guide them and furnish carriers for baggage, merchandise and 
provisions. The RecoUets being a mendicant order, Daillon apologizes for 
this breach of a fundamental rule, by showing the impossibility of adhering 
to it, among Indian tribes, who gave nothing for nothing,. The party 
slept five nights in the woods, and on the sixth day arrived at the first Neu- 
tral village. They visited four other villages. The natives vied with each 
other in bringing them food. "Some brought venison, others squashes, 
cornmeal porridge, and the best they had; for all of which the good priest 
was expected to reward them out of the goods he carried". "All were aston- 
ished to see me dressed as I was, and to see that I desired nothing of theirs, 
except that I invited them by signs to lift their eyes to heaven, and make 
the sign of the Holy Cross. What fiHed them with wonder was to see me 
retire at certain hours in the day to pray to God and attend to my spiritual 
affairs, for they had never seen any Religious, except towards the Tobacco 
Nation and Hurons, their neighbours. At last we arrived at the sixth vil- 
lage, where I had been advised to remain." Here a council had been called 
by the chiefs. "They sit on the ground, in a cabin or the open field, in per- 
fect silence, while the chief harangues; and are very strict observers of what 
has once been concluded and resolved." "There I told them, through the 
interpreter, that I came on behalf of the French to contract alliance and 
friendship with them, and to invite them to come to trade. I also begged 
them to allow me to remain in their country, to be able to instruct them 
in the law of our God, which is the only means of going to heaven. They 
accepted all my offers, and showed me they were very agreeable. Being 
much consoled at this, I made them a present of what little I had, such as 
small knives and other such trifles, which they valued highly. For in these 
countries nothing is done with the Indians without making them some kind 
of a present. In return they adopted me, as they say, that is to say, they 
declared me a citizen and child of their country, and gave me in trust — ^mark 
of great affection — to Souharissen, who was my father and host; for ac- 
cording to age, they are accustomed to call us cousin, brother, son, uncle,' 
or nephew, etc. This man is the chief of greatest credit and authority that 
has ever been in all the nations; for he is not only chief of his village, but 
of all those of his nation, numbering 28 towns, cities, and villages, made 
like those of the Huron country, and also of several little hamlets of seven 
or eight cabins, built in various parts convenient for fishing, hunting, or 
agriculture. It is unexampled in other nations to have so absolute a chief. 
He acquired this honour and power by his courage, and by having been 
repeatedly at war with the 17 nations which are their enemies, and taken 
heads or brought in prisoners from all." 

Daillon notes the high estimate they placed on valour in war and their 
dexterity with their only weapons, the club, and bow and arrow. Grenolle 
and Lavallee returned to the Hurons, after this cordial welcome. Daillon 
remained, "the happiest man in the world, hoping to do something there 
to advance God's glory, or at least to discover the means, which would be 
no small thing, and to get information concerning the mouth of the river 
of the Iroquois, in order to bring them to trade. 

It is a question what river was intended. Was it the Niagara, the 
St. Lawrence, or the Richelieu? The Jesuit Relations show that the name 
was applied to the last-mentioned stream. Daillon's knowledge of the 


Huron language was very limited; the Neutrals' speech was slightly differ- 
ent, and except for Champlain's brief incursion from Lake Ontario, the country 
of the Iroquois was quite unknown to the French. The vagueness of Daillon's 
geographical knowledge is therefore easy to understand. Apparently he did not 
reach the Niagara, as he makes no mention of the river or the falls, and he 
seems to have spent his time mainly in the neighborhood of Burlington Bay. 
The "sixth village", where he spent his time, bore the name of Ounontisas- 
ton (meaning "at the foot of the mountain"), and may have been any- 
where, from Hamilton eastward, at the foot of the escarpment. The eas- 
termost village of the Neutrals he calls Ouaroronon, probably a copyist's 
mistake for Onaroronon, "the Niagara people." From this village ten men 
came to Ounontisaston to trade, and to invite Daillon to visit them, but 
he was unable to accept immediately, whereupon he was maltreated by 
them, robbed, and narrowly escaped being murdered. Meanwhile he had 
found himself foiled in every effort to bring the Neutrals to trade directly 
with the French. They were willing to go with not less than four canoes 
"if he would guide them, but he did not know the way." Yroquet, a well 
known chief of an Algonkin tribe near Ottawa, "who had come there with 
twenty of his men beaver-hunting, and who had taken fully five hundred, 
would never give us any mark to know the mouth of the river. He and 
several Hurons assured us that it was only ten days' journey to the trading 
place, but we were afraid of taking one stream for another, and losing our 
way or dying of hunger on the land." Evidently neither Yroquet nor the 
Hurons were over-zealous to encourage poachers on their game-preserves, 
or interlopers in their trade-monopoly. Daillon spent three months agree- 
ably enough among his hosts, but the Hurons were busy poisoning the minds 
of the Neutrals in every village they entered, and dissuading them from 
going to trade. Daillon, they reported, was a great magician, a sorcerer, 
his religious acts were incantations of witchcraft; he had "tainted the air 
of their country, and poisoned many; if they did not kill me soon, I would 
set fire to their villages and cause all their children to die. The French 
were a morose, rude, melancholy people, who lived solely on snakes and 
poison; we ate thunder, which they imagine to be an unparalleled chimera, 
relating extraordinary stories about it," with many other monstrous absur- 
dities, "to make us hated by them and prevent their trading with us, that 
they might have the trade with these nations themselves exclusively, which 
is very profitable to them." 

Daillon's story of his troubles is interesting and instructive, as intimat- 
ing that it was not through any objection to his missionary efforts as such, 
but solely through intertribal trade jealousy and fear of magic power, that 
his mission proved a failure. The remark will be found to hold good as a 
general rule in subsequent history, and particularly in the wars of the 
Iroquois, whose military policy was governed almost exclusively by their 
interest in the immensely profitable trade in peltries with northern tribes. 
For the same commercial reason, the FVench trading company discouraged 
the Recollet Brother Sagard's efforts to bring about peace between the 
Hurons and the Iroquois. The result, it was objected, would simply be 
that the Iroquois would take the Hurons to trade with their nearer neigh- 
bors, the Dutch, and divert them from Quebec, which was farther away. 

The report reached the Huron country that Daillon had been killed. 
The Jesuit fathers thereupon sent Grenolle to him to learn the truth, and 
bring him back if alive. The messenger brought a letter inviting him to 
return, and their advice was fortified by that of all the Frenchmen among 
the Hurons. Daillon submitted and returned with Grenolle to the mission, 
after an absence of about five months. His report was as enthusiastic as 

"The country of the Neutral Nation is incomparably larger, more beau- 
tiful, and better than any other of all these countries. There is an incredible 
number of stags, great abundance of moose or elk, beaver, racoons, and 
black-squirrels, larger than the French; a great quantity of wild geese, tur- 
keys, cranes and other animals, which are there all winter, which is not long 
and rigorous as in Canada. No snow had fallen by the 22nd of November. 
It never was over two feet deep, and began to melt on the 26th of January. 


On the 8th of March there was none at all in the clearings, though, it is true, 
a little remained in the woods. A stay there is quite invigorating and com- 
fortable; the rivers furnish much excellent fish; the earth produces good 
grain, in excess of what was required. There are squashes, beans, and 
other vegetables in plenty, and excellent oil, which they called a Touranton." 
Is this a reference to petroleum, which, as is well known, was gathered by 
Indians from time immemorial from the surface of the river Thames near 
Bothwell? It is at least possible. Daillon expresses his amazement that 
the Merchants' Company, notwithstanding the difficulties and dangers of 
the Ottawa and Nipissing canoe and portage route, and the hardships of 
the six days' overland trail from the Huron country, had not sent French- 
men to winter among the Neutrals, and to carry their furs direct to the St. 
Lawrence trading-place. It would be vastly shorter and easier to go by 
way of Lake Ontario, one side of which belonged to the Neutrals. There 
was one difficulty in the fact that the Neutrals "knew little about managing 
canoes, especially in the rapids; but there were only two, although these 
were long and dangerous." 

The real business of the Neutrals was hunting and war. With that 
exception, they were very lazy, and "you see them like beggars in JVance, 
when they have their full, lying on their belly in the sun." 

Their manners, morals, and customs, like those of the Hurons, were 
very impure. They went absolutely naked. Their language was different 
from that of the Hurons, but they understood each other, as the Algonkins 
of the Ottawa and the Montagnais of the lower St. Lawrence did. A num- 
ber of Frenchmen had established themselves at an early date among the 
Hurons for purposes of trade. Extending their operations, they visited 
other tribes in all directions. After Daillon's visit in 1627, as doubtless for 
some years before, they went frequently among the Neutrals, where they 
were welcomed for the goods they brought. They kept no records, however, 
and the knowledge they gained was a trade secret, which they would not 
communicate to the world. When a mission was begun in a new region, 
it was often deemed prudent to associate the trader with the missionary, 
that the latter might share in the former's welcome. 

The next recorded visit was that of the Jesuit fathers, Brebeuf and 
Chaumonot. Brebeuf was 46 and his companion 28, when they undertook, 
in the winter of 1639-1640, a journey to the Neutral villages. Brebeuf 
had lived among the Hurons for several years and acquired an excellent 
knowledge of their language. Chaumonot was distinguished for his learn- 
ing, and was especially gifted in languages. Both were enthusiastic mis- 
sionaries. Their reception was by no means cordial, but they were not 
easily disheartened. They set out again on the 2nd of November, 1640 to 
establish the "Mission of the Angels" among the Neutrals. Taught by 
experience, they took with them two French donnes, or domestics, as trad- 
ers. As long as traders were with them, they were in no danger. The 
record of the first journey is a very brief one from Chaumonot's hand. The 
second visit is described in Lalemant's Relation of 1641, sent from the Huron 
Mission to the provincial of the Society of Jesus in France. The following 
is a brief summary of their reports: — 

The nation was very populous, including at that time about 40 villages 
or hamlets. To reach the first village from the Hurons they travelled due 
south, on the first occasion six days, on the second "four or five days." 
The distance was about 40 leagues (nearly a hundred miles). Four days' 
journey farther to the south or southeast was "the entrance of the so celebrat- 
ed river of that Nation into the Ontario or Lake of St. Louis. "The river 
was named the Onguiaahra (now Niagara.) Champlain's map had repre- 
sented the Neutrals as south of Lake Erie. This error is corrected: "On 
this side of that river and not beyond it, as a certain chart indicates, are the 
greater part of the villages of the Neutral Nation. There are three or four 
beyond, ranging from east to west, towards the Nation of the Cat, or Eries." 

The estimated population was at least 12,000. As the number of war- 
riors was still given at 4,000, the wars, famine and sickness which for three 
years had been unusually prevalent must have been particularly destructive 
to women and children. 


The hostility between the Iroquois and Hurons had become so bitter, 
that neutrality was now totally disregarded, especially by the Iroquois. 
The Neutrals were less inclined to the Hurons than to their enemies. In 
those days, it seems, it was a difficult matter to preserve absolute neutrality. 
The Fathers believed the three nations had originally formed but one people, 
but had become divided in abode, in interests, and in affecton. 

The Neutrals had cruel wars with other western nations, and especially 
with the Atsistaehronons (Mascoutens), or Nation of Fire. They had 
brought back a hundred prisoners last year and 170 this year, and treated 
them with almost the same cruelties as those practised by the Hurons toward 
their enemies. The Neutrals were even more brutal; for they burned wo- 
men prisoners as well as men. Two thousand Neutral warriors had taken 
part in the last expedition. 

In food and clothing they were very much like the Hurons. They culti- 
vated Indian corn, beans and squashes, in equal abundance. Fish were 
plentiful. So were stags, does, turkeys, racoons, wolves, black squirrels, 
beaver and other animals, valuable for meat and fur. Fruits and nuts 
were about equally plentiful in both countries, exceptions being chestnuts, 
which abounded in the southern region, and wild apples which were a little 
larger than in the northern. They tattoed their bodies from head to 
foot with "a thousand different figures with charcoal pricked into the flesh, 
upon which previously they had traced their lines." They were scantily 
clad or not at all. 

Physically, they were taller, stronger and better proportioned than the 
Hurons. In treatment of the dead they differed curiously. The Hurons 
buried immediately in individual graves or in cemeteries, from which the bodies 
were taken away for the Feast of the Dead. The Neutrals kept their dead 
in their dwellings during the entire winter; then having put them on scaffolds 
outside until decayed,they arranged them on both sides of their cabins until the 
Feast of the Dead. With such melancholy objects always in view, the wo- 
men indulged frequently in doleful lamentations and cries in a kind of 
chant. Lunatics were a privileged class and numerous. Evidently many 
assumed the part, to profit by the privilege. 

Some old men related stories to the fathers, showing that they had 
carried their wars westward and southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Brebeuf and Chaumonot left the Mission House of Sainte Marie the 
second of November, 1640. When they reached St. Joseph, or Teanau- 
stayae, "the last village of the Hurons, where they were to make provision 
for their journey, and find guides," they found the guides had failed to keep 
their promise. However, the first young man they accosted followed them 
at once, and remained with them faithfully. The two French domestics 
they took in the guise of traders proved their value. Without this safe- 
guard, the doors of cabins would have been and were shut against them. 

They slept four nights in the woods. The fifth day, they reached the 
first village, Kandoucho, probably north of Burlington Bay. The Jesuits 
gave it the name "All Saints." 

The priests had failed in their former visit, as Daillon had done in 
1627, through slanderous reports. They made up their minds to meet such 
calumnies in advance, by securing the authorization of the principal chief 
named Tsohahissen. This is probably the same word as Souharissen, the 
name of the head chief when Sagard was in the region. Possibly it was a 
title and not a proper name, Sagard's head chief may, however, have been 
the same person. 

Tsohahissen's village was "in the midst (au milieu) of the country; to 
reach it, we had to pass through several other villages and hamlets." Bre- 
beuf's reputation as a sorcerer had preceeded him, with the result that the 
doors of the cabins were everywhere closed against the priests. They 
opened again when prospects of trade were held out, and thus they were 
able "to reach successfully even the village of the head chief, who happened 
to be away at war, and would not return until spring." Evidently the 
journey to the capital was a long one. To reach it many villages had to be 
passed. "In their journey the fathers passed through eighteen hamlets or 
villages, to all of which they gave a Christian name, which we shall use 


hereafter when occasion arises. They made a special stay at ten, where 
they gave instruction as often as they could find a hearing." Sanson's 
maps of 1650 and 1656 and Du Creux's, of 1660, were based upon the fathers' 
report, and together form a valuable commentary upon it. It is reasonably 
clear from these maps that the priests followed well known trails to the 
Grand River, then diverged to the height of land between the Thames and 
Lake Erie, which they followed along or near the line of Talbot Road, and 
so on to the Detroit River. They may have proceeded along the ice across 
Lake St. Clair to reach a village northeast of Sarnia. The maps show the 
Grand River and three other streams west of it flowing into Lake Erie, one 
of which, being forked in Du Creux's map, is apparently Kettle Creek. 
Lake St. Clair is called Sea-water lake, and three tribes are located west of 
the St. Clair, the most northerly being the Nation of Fire. The priests as 
already stated, gave Christian names to eighteen villages, in ten of which 
they made a special stay. It is curious that the maps give only five Chris- 
tian names — all west of the Grand River. The narrative mentions two 
others — "All Saints" (Kandoucho), and "St. William" (Teotongnioton). 
St. William was apparently midway between the extreme limits of their 
journey. The other Christian names given are "Our Lady of the Angels," 
(near Brantford), "St. Alexis", (in Sanson west, in Ducreux east of Kettle 
Creek), "St. Joseph," (midway between St. Alexis and the Detroit), "St. 
Michael," (near Windsor), arid "St. Francis," (somewhere near the town- 
ship of Bosanquet, or Williams). 

We can only guess as to their exact location and relative importance. 
Which of the five was Tsohahissen's capital? Was it "Our Lady of the 
Angels", a name which might well be selected for the headquarters of the 
Mission of the Angels? Or was it St. Joseph, so named in honour of the 
patron saint of Canada? St. Francis, the patron saint of all missions, was 
held in special honour by the Jesuits. Did they honour the capital with 
his name? Or was it the town near the western frontier, placed under the 
protecting care of St. Michael, the warrior archangel with the flaming 
sword? Or again, was it St. Alexis, which the maps show as the most cen- 
trally situated of the five? We are left to conjecture. Two things that 
appear certain are that the priests reached the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers, 
and that they did not reach the Niagara. For, although the village of 
Ongiara is shown, it is left without a Christian name. As to St. Michael, 
the missionaries expressly mention their sojourn there. 

In any case we may conclude that the missionaries passed through the 
lake shore region from the Grand River to the western border of Ontario 
and sojourned for a time on the east bank of the Detroit. It is interesting 
to note that the forking of the upper Grand River towards Guelph, Kitch- 
ener, etc., is shown with some degree of accuracy. This would indicate 
that the priests passed through this region. 

In the absence of the principal chief, the headmen of his village held a 
council. The priests had previously explained to them "their plan of 
publishing the gospel throughout the extent of these territories, and of 
forming by this means a special alliance with them," and offered a collar 
of 2000 porcelain beads to bind the treaty. The council refused the pre- 
sent in the head chief's absence, but were willing, if they chose to wait until 
his return, that they should go "freely in the country and give therein such 
instruction as they pleased." 

The fathers now felt themselves safe from further molestation. Ac- 
cordingly, their two French domestics were sent back to Ste. Marie. The 
fathers conducted them out of the country, and then retraced their steps 
and began their duties. But the pretence of trade no longer held good, and 
calumnious reports began to circulate in more mischievous form than ever. 
Indians are prone to suspicion, and the Neutrals gave a ready ear to every 
tale. It was charged that Brebeuf was instigating the Senecas to attack 
and destroy them. On the other hand, it was said, that out of revenge 
for the killing of a Huron friend he had carried the smallpox to the Senecas, 
and the Hurons had applauded his act, and begged the Jesuits to cause the 
death of all their enemies. Meanwhile the missionaries at Ste. Marie 
heard almost every week, that the fathers had been slain by Senecas in 


Neutral territory. These reports were invented by the Hurons to cover 
their own plots to murder them. Many Hurons made their way to Neu- 
tral villages expressly to spread all kinds of dangerous rumours. The 
Jesuits, they said, cultivated smallpox in their house; the writings were 
nothing but witchcraft, the priests caused everyone to die under pretence 
of making presents, and would destroy all the rest of the world, unless 
every cabin were closed to them. 

A Huron named Awenhokwi, a chief's nephew, presented hatchets 
to many Neutral villages in the name of the chiefs, and old men of his 
nation. If the Neutrals failed to use the hatchets, he informed them, the 
Hurons would do away with the priests when they returned. He tried to 
force himself into the missionaries' company, but they had been warned 
in time to escape his murderous intentions. Another, named Oentara, 
carried effrontery so far, that, when confronted with the fathers, he re- 
affirmed his calumnies in presence of the Neutrals. Without waiting fur- 
ther for Tsohahissen's return, the chiefs and captains now held another 
council, and notified the fathers of the definitive refusal of the present. 
But they again stated that they had no objection to the continuance of 
religious instruction. When pressed to explain the refusal of the present, 
the chiefs at last confessed that it was owing to the reports circulated by 
the Hurons. Attempting to renew their instruction, the priests experienced 
rebuffs, insults, and attacks, in every village. The terror of the Neutrals 
was indescribable. Everything the priests did only confirmed their belief 
in the tales they had heard. 

What more convincing proof could be asked than the priests' apparel 
so different from the native custom, their mode of walking, their gestures, 
their manners? Breviaries, inkstands, writings, prayers — there was witch- 
craft in every one! When the strangers went to the brook to wash their 
dishes, they poisoned the water! When they entered a cabin, the children 
were made ill, and the women barren. "In short, there was no misfortune 
present or to come, of which they were not considered the source. And 
many poor persons, in whose cabins the fathers were lodged, slept neither 
day nor night; they dared not touch the food they left, and they brought 
back their presents, holding everything in suspicion. The poor old women 
considered themselves already lost, and only regretted their grandchildren, 
who might have been able to repeople the land." 

The chiefs sought to get rid of their unwelcome guests. They warned, 
they threatened, they ordered them about as slaves, they half-starved 
them. At other times they forced the priests to go from cabin to cabin, 
and to eat whatever was set before them, at such prices as the hosts should 
demand. Pretended lunatics plundered them at will. "In short they 
spoke of nothing but of killing and eating those poor fathers." Yet dur- 
ing four months of sojourn, the missionaries "lacked nothing that was 
necessary to life, neither lodging nor sufficient food." The hardships, 
instead of impairing, had, as is often the case, the effect of improving their 
health. "They showed their ingenuity by laying in a supply of bread, 
baked under cinders after the manner of the country, and which they kept 
for 30 or 40 days, that they might have it in case of necessity." The fathers 
estimated about 500 fires, and about 3000 persons, as the number reached 
by them in the ten villages specially visited. If we assume the 3000 to 
whom "they set forth and published the gospel" to have been adults, and 
consider that there were in all 28 villages or towns, it seems probable that 
the priests did not exaggerate in estimating the total population at 12,000 
or over. 

Owing to the increasing difficulties and dangers, the fathers were glad 
to retrace their steps. At Kandoucho (or "All Saints"), the people had 
been less hostile. There, then, the missionaries determined they would 
labour until spring, when the Mission at Ste. Marie had arranged to send 
for them. Snowbound, however, at Teotongniaton ("St. William"), half- 
way on their return journey, they were hospitably entertained in the cabin 
of a woman, whose husband was away hunting. Game was abundant, but 
it was the season of Lent. She readily provided fish to season their corn- 
piealiporridge, and gave them the best fare she could find. She became 


their teacher, instructed them in the Neutrals* language, dictating the words, 
syllable by syllable, and even entire narratives. Other children were shy, 
and avoided the fathers. Hers vied with each other in acts of kindness, 
quarrelled and fought in defence of the fathers, loved to talk to them, and 
to help them in every way, including practice in speaking the language. 
She treated with open ridicule the slanderous stories in circulation, and when 
her own life was threatened, answered calmly, that she would rather she 
and her children should die, than send the fathers to perish in the snow. 
They remained in her cabin for 25 days, and succeeded in compiling a com- 
parative dictionary and grammar of the Huron and Neutral language, a 
work in itself, in their estimation, worth several years' sojourn in the coun- 

Their letters to Ste. Marie rarely reached the Mission. The Hurons 
to whom they were entrusted, lost them on the journey, or threw them 
away. Alarmed for their safety, Lalemant sent two Hurons and two French- 
men to escort them back to the Mission. The party returned on the 19th 
of March, 1641, "after eight days of travel and fatigue in the forest, the very 
day of St. Joseph, the patron saint of the country, and even in time to say 
mass, which they had not been able to say since their departure." 

The hostility of the Neutrals had put an end to the plans for their con- 
version. The "Mission of the Angels" was a failure. The Jesuits resolved 
to limit their efforts to the Tobacco Nation and other tribes more easily 
reached from the mission house of Ste. Marie. French traders, no doubt, 
came and went as usual between the Neutrals and Hurons. The Neutrals 
continued their production of maize, tobacco, beans and squashes, and their 
manufacture of pipes and flint arrowheads and axes. The surplus product 
was exchanged with northern Algonkin tribes for skins, furs, porcupine 
quills and quillwork. 

Meanwhile the Iroquois-Huron feud became more and more ruthless. 
War parties from both sides traversed the Neutral country to attack their 
enemies. It was inevitable that the Neutrals should be involved, sooner 
or later. In the winter of 1646-1647, a Seneca warrior murdered a Huron 
on the Petun frontier. Pursued by fellow tribesmen of the slain to a village 
of the Aondironnons, the Neutral tribe nearest the Hurons, he was killed 
at their gates before he could enter a cabin. The Senecas vowed vengeance 
against the Neutrals. In the following summer, 300 Seneca warriors 
arrived among the Aondironnons, were received as friends, and distributed 
by their hosts through all the cabins in each of which food was prepared for 
them. At a pre-arranged moment, the treacherous guests arose and mas- 
sacred or seized all who thought of resisting. The survivors were, accord- 
ing to a common practice, carried away to be incorporated with the victor- 
ious Senecas. The Neutral Nation was already doomed. 

It was in the year 1649 that the Iroquois carried out their invasion of 
the Georgian Bay region, which involved then or later the destruction by 
war or famine of a great part of the Huron, Tobacco, and Algonkin Nations, 
the retreat of a large number to the northwest, and the capture and subse- 
quent incorporation with the Senecas of the residue of the population. 
For a year, however, they relaxed their efforts against the northern foes, 
to mass their forces against the Neutrals. The invaders were successful, 
and captured two villages on the frontier, one toward the end of autumn, 
1650, and the other in the following spring. One was Teotondiaton, appar- 
ently the same in which Brebeuf and Chaumonot had made their prolonged 
stay when snowbound nine years before. 1,500 Iroquois stormed the vil- 
lages, in one of which there were more than 1,600 men. They swept away 
1,650 Neutrals into captivity. The aged and children, unable to endure 
the hardships of the journey to the Iroquois country, were massacred. A 
large number of captives were adopted by the Senecas. This loss, writes 
Father Ragueneau, "was very great and entailed the complete ruin and 
desolation of the Neutral Nation. The inhabitants of the other villages, 
more distant from the enemy, took fright, abandoned their houses, their 
property and their country, and condemned themselves to voluntary exile, 
to escape still further the fury and cruelty of the conquerors. Famine 
pursues these poor fugitives everywhere and compels them to scatter 


through the woods, and among the more remote lakes and rivers, to find 
some relief from the misery that keeps pace with them and causes them to 

The details of the expulsion are not as completely recorded or as precise 
as we would wish. We have to gather them from brief references scattered 
through many Relations. Some fugitives took refuge among the Hurons, 
others among the Eries and Andastes. Large numbers near the Detroit 
chose to submit to the foe and to remove to the Senecas. In 1653, eight 
hundred Neutrals who had wintered with a friendly tribe southwest of 
Lake Erie were to join the Petun (Tobacco) Indians at a point three days' 
journey southward from Sault Ste. Marie. Their further wanderings to 
Green Bay, the Mississippi, Lake Superior and the lakes of Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, form one of the most tragic chapters in Indian history. In 
1669 we hear of a village in the Seneca country called Gandougarae, 
composed of remnants of Neutrals, Hurons and another nation, perhaps 
Petun. Ten years before, Father Ragueneau says the Iroquois had "em- 
braced the opportunity to seize the whole nation and carry it into a harsh 
captivity in their own country." At the begining of the 18th century, 
Hurons, including, no doubt, survivors of the Petun and Neutral Nations, 
settled at Detroit, where they were known under the general name of 
Wyandots. Under British rule a Huron reserve was established on the 
Canadian side. A few years ago, it ceased to exist, the survivors having 
largely merged in the white population. The late Mr. Solomon White, 
Q. C., M. P. P., for Essex, and at one time Mayor of Cobalt, was the son 
of a Huron chief. Many survivors of the combined Huron, Petun and 
Neutral nations under the name of Wyandots removed many years ago to 
Oklahoma, where some 400 of their descendants are still to be found. 

The Neutrals have left many traces of their occupation. Village sites 
may still be traced by earthworks, ossuaries, cemeteries, ash-heaps and 
middens. Four miles northwest of Westover in the township of Beverley, 
where one of the largest villages existed, hundreds of arrowheads and other 
rude weapons indicate the site of a fearful struggle. This was probably 
the village of Teotondiaton or its ill-fated neighbour, which suffered so 
disastrously from the Iroquois attack. There were many villages near the 
Niagara and Grand Rivers, and in the lake shore counties. The best pre- 
served fort is the well-known Southwold Earthwork, ten miles west of St. 
Thomas, near the Talbot Road, enclosing several acres. It is a double wall 
and practically intact. The rich soil of Southwold, Yarmouth, and Mala- 
hide attracted population long before the whites appeared on the scene. 
Southwold was especially favoured. That township contained many vil- 
lages and a large number of Indian inhabitants. Some of the remains in 
southern Ontario may indicate, however, as Mr. Wintemberg contends, a 
pre-Neutral occupation, dating possibly back to a period many centuries 
before the arrival of the Neutrals. 

After the middle of the 17th century, the Neutral country became a 
game preserve of the Iroquois who ranged the woods for deer, bear, wolves, 
lynxes, racoons and beaver. At times the forest teemed with wild turkeys, 
the ponds with wild geese and ducks and the sky was darkened with count- 
less millions of pigeons. When Dollier de Casson and Galinee passed 
through in 1669-1670, there were no human inhabitants. 

When the French established their settlement at Detroit in 1701, the 
Iroquois, as a political counterstroke, undertook to cede to the English the 
whole Neutral territory. The grant remained, however, a dead letter. 
Gradually the Ojibways or Chippewas and the Missisaugas crept south- 
ward with their hunting and fishing bands, and established themselves 
at various points. According to Rev. Peter Jones, the Iroquois resisted 
the encroachment, and a great battle on Burlington Beach decided the issue. 
The Iroquois acknowledged the title of the Ojibways, and agreed to a treaty 
of peace and amity, which was carefully observed on both sides. The 
statement is confirmed by the fact that, after the American Revolution, 
it was from Missisaugas, a branch of the Ojibways, that the government 
purchased the east half of the Neutrals' country, extending as far west as 
Catfish Creek on Lake Erie. Before the Iroquois refugees could settle on 


the Grand River, the claim of the Missisaugas had to be released. The 
west half of the territory was released from the Indian claim by a treaty 
made with the Ottawa, Chippewa (0 jib way), Potawatomi, and Huron 
Nations, in 1790. 

At the present time the Indian occupation of southern Ontario is lim- 
ited to a few reserves, the largest of which is that of the Six Nations on 
the Grand River. Among the Senecas on this reserve there are doubtless 
many descendants of the ancient Neutral occupants. The Missisaugas, 
who were formerly at Port Credit, are now at Hagersville. The Dela- 
wares, Munseys, and Oneidas of the Thames, are immigrants, whose an- 
cestors came in from the State of New York after the American Revolution. 
Ojibway or Chippewa reserves are found in the Bruce peninsula, in Caradoc, 
on the Thames, in the Sarnia and Bosanquet reserves, and on Walpole 
Island. At the latter place there are also Ottawas, whose forefathers occu- 
pied Manitoulin and the Bruce peninsula three centuries ago, and Potawa- 
tomis, whose ancestors dwelt on the shores of Green Bay in Michigan. But 
as a national entity, the great confederacy that occupied southern Ontario 
in Champlain's time has vanished forever from the soil. 




Ofticers and men of Waterloo County who have made the Supreme 
Sacrifice for King and Country. 


Pte. J. Wilson Aikens 
" John D. Anderson 
" Arthur Arber 
Sergft, George Babbs 
Pte. George C. Barker 
" David Bain 
" George Barnes 
Sergt. Edward Bird 
Lieut. H. H. Bourne 
Pte. William Bowie 
Corp. Henry C. Braid 
Lieut. Ross D. Briscoe 
Pte. E. R. Broadwell 
" Charles E. Carey 
" J.Carrol 
Sergt. A. F. Cater 
Corp. Hugh Cleave 
Sergt. Clement Chatten 
Pte. H. Clair 
Gunner C. J. Cornwall 
Pte. John J. Cowell 
Pte. Archibald Crawford 
L.-Corp. James Dickie 
Pte. Alfred H. Drew 
Harry Drinkwater 
John Duncan 
George W. Edwards 
H. A. Fabian 
Walter Flockhart 
Albert Foote 
William Eraser 
John E. Gahagan 
George A. Jones 
L.-Corp. John Haner 
L.-Corp. Charles Haskell 
Pioneer Edward Lambden 

Pte. John Lee 

" James Leith 

" Bert Lavender 

" Samuel Lawrason 
Capt. Thomas D. Lockhart 
Pte. Percy Lowell 

" Bert Luck 

" John M. Maley 
Gunner Duncan E. Mann 
Pte. T. J. Martin 

" Alexander McNicol 

" James McNicol 
Q.-M. Sergt. C. Mills 
Pte. William M. Menary 
Sergt. Edward H. MuUoy 
Pte. Frank H. Murr 

" Peter Nelson 

" John Nicols 

" Walter Payne 

" L. Peterson 
Corp. George C. Potts 
Pte. James Potts 
Sergt. Ernest J. Rowe 
Pte. William Shupp 
Sergt. Joseph Spooner 
Pte. Norman Stevenson 

" James Stewart 

" Edward J. Sutton 

" F. G. Thorne 

" Percy Walley 
Sergt.-Major Eli Watts 
Pte. Albert Welch 

" John Wheeler 

" Arthur Harold White 

" Robert Wylie 


Pte. Eric Carthy 

" Percy Carthy 

" George Craig 

" Alexander Ralph Eby 

" Henry J. Figures 

" John A. Gehl 

" John Gerbig 

" Stanley Gibbard 
Capt. Carlton C. Green 

Pte. Percy J. Hatchman 
•' RoUie Messett 

Lieut. Stanley Reid 

Pte. William Stanley Moody 
" John Simpson 
" William H. Smith 
" Frank J. Sosnoski 
" Philip Van Auderaude 


I>te. William F. Adams 
"i Alfred Hawkins 
"i^: A. Housler 

' John Hughes 

' William Johnston 

' H. F. Marris 

* John Lynn Pattinson 


Pte. James H. Reid 
" Robert Rogers 
" Reginald Sears 
Capt. George Simmers 
Pte. Horace Skipton 
" James Tanner 
" Ivan H. Thomas 

Pte. Godfrey Bish 
" Henry Gross 

Pte. George Bell 
" Edward Butcher 
" William G. Davis 
" Ernest Gatehouse 
" Ernest R. Keffer 
" Frank M. Keffer 


Pte. Henry Treusch 


Pte. Thomas R. Lyons 

" George H. Marshall 
Sergt. Thomas McMaster 
Pte. Henry Meade 
Sergt. James Nuttall 

Pte. John E. Spahr, New Hamburg 
Pte. Lloyd Brubacher, St. Jacobs 




By James E. Kerr. 

In this centennial year of the founding of Gait it is thought that a short 
sketch of the life of Hon. William Dickson should find a place in our Annual 
Report of the Waterloo Historical Society. 

My readers will, I trust, pardon me if I dwell too much on the history 
of Niagara but it seems to me that some historical details are necessary. 
We must not forget that Mr. Dickson spent in Niagara the greater part of 
his life, the period from boyhood to middle age and the period when, his 
work all but accomplished, he returned to his old home in which to pass the 
remainder of his life and enjoy the competency his ability and energy had 
won. Niagara was no ordinary village, for in it and in its vicinity events 
took place that decided the future of Canada. Of many of those events 
Mr. Dickson must have been a spectator and in some of them he took a 
prominent part. 

I beg to acknowledge my indebtedness to Miss Carnochan of Niagara 
for the material taken from her History of Niagara, to Miss Florence Dick- 
son of Kirkmichael, Gait, for copies of letters written by her grandfather, 
and to Hon. James Young's Early History of Gait and the Settlement of 

The family of Dickson came originally from the parish of Caerlaverock 
in the southern part of Dumfries-shire, Scotland. They came of good 
Presbyterian stock, for we find that seventeen of the family signed the 
Solemn League and Covenant, whereby they bound themselves to use every 
means in their power to extirpate popery and prelacy in the Three Kingdoms 
and to establish uniformity in religion and worship by making everybody 
Presbyterian like themselves. The first of the family of whom we have any 

Particular account was a Thomas Dickson, who about the year 1700, left 
is parish and moved into Dumfries. There he engaged in trade. He mar- 
ried Margaret Bell, a daughter of one of the burgesses of the town. He left 
three sons, John, Thomas and Nicholas. We are only concerned with 
John, who carried on his father's business so successfully that he was able 
to add to it several other commercial undertakings. He had inherited from 
his uncle George Bell, the estate of Conheath. He was looked up to as a 
very successful merchant and his townsmen showed their appreciation of 
his ability by making him their Provost. Evil days came, however; the es- 
tate which his uncle left him was found to be heavily encumbered and the 
failure of a large banking concern with which he was in some way connected 
crippled him financially. He had married a Miss Helen Wight, a daughter 
of the minister of St. Michael's, and had a large family, four daughters and 
six sons, Robert, William, John, Alexander, Thomas and Walter. Perhaps 
it was the losses their father had sustained that turned the attention of 
three of the sons to Canada, where the prospect of bettering their condition, 
seemed brighter than in Scotland. However that may be, Robert, William 
and Thomas found their way to this country. We know from his own state- 
ment that William came to Canada in 1784. He was born in 1769, and there- 
fore his age must have been about fifteen. The dates of the arrival of his 
brothers are not known. Probably Robert came with William as he was 
the oldest and Thomas, who was the youngest of the three, may have come 
sometime later. William entered the employment of his cousin, Hon. 
Robert Hamilton, who in partnership with Hon. Richard Cartwright, car- 
ried on an extensive mercantile business in the Niagara district. Hamilton 
was an energetic, pushing, business man. His name was associated with 
everything that had for its object the betterment of the community. Bishop 


Strachan said of him that "he was remarkable for varied information, engag- 
ing manners, princely hospitality." William and Thomas Dickson were 
fortunate in their association with such a man. Of their first years in Can- 
ada there are few particulars. Robert went out West and became a fur 
trader in the region of the Upper Mississippi which at that time was almost 
uninhabited except by roving tribes of Indians. He acquired, by long resi- 
dence among these, a profound knowledge of Indian life and character and 
was able to render valuable assistance to the American Govermnent in its 
dealings with the red men. He retained, however, his British citizenship, 
and during the war of 1812 he induced many of the Indians to fight on the 
English side. For these services he was at the close of the war rewarded by 
the British Government with a pension of three hundred pounds and a grant 
of a large tract of land. He died at Drummond Island in 1823. 

William and Thomas settled in the Niagara district. William seems 
to have stopped on his way from Quebec at Carleton Island on the St. 
Lawrence but afterwards he lived at Niagara. Thomas took up his resi- 
dence at Queenston. In 1790 or perhaps a little later, William built the first 
brick house erected in Niagara. Both the young men seem to have been 
successful, first in the employment of their cousin, Hon. Robert Hamilton, 
and afterwards in business on their own account. 

The village of Niagara, which in 1795 contained, according to George 
Weld, only seventy houses, was from 1792 to 1796, the capital of the new 
province of Upper Canada, which contained at that time from ten to twenty 
thousand settlers. In 1791 an act was passed by the Parliament at West- 
minister by which Canada was divided into two self-governing provinces, 
Upper and Lower Canada, but it was not till the 17th of September of the 
following year that "the little yeoman Parliament of British Canada," as 
Goldwin Smith called it, was opened. A constitution was bestowed which 
the Governor told his backwoods parliament was "the very image and trans- 
cript of the British Constitution." William Dickson, who was present at 
the opening said, in a speech made many years after that in Gait, "Well do 
I remember the joy and enthusiasm which pervaded all classes and ranks on 
such a boon being granted." The five sessions of the first parliament were 
held in Niagara and there Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe resided. 

To a visitor the population of Niagara must have presented a strange 
medley. There were retired army oflficers, U. E. Loyalists, settlers from the 
States and a floating population of Indians, half-breeds, negroes, voyageurs, 
traders and adventurers of all sorts. The constant presence of British troops 
quartered at Fort Niagara and afterwards at Fort George and in the village 
itself added much to the liveliness and gaiety of the place. Not a few per- 
sons of note found their way hither in those early days. Here came in 1792 
the fourth son of George the Third, His Royal Highness, the Duke of Kent. 
He was at that time a young man of about twenty-five. He was taken up 
by Governor Simcoe to see the Falls, wined and dined by Mr. Hamilton at 
Queenston and during his stay numerous pleasure parties were gotten up for 
his delectation. In 1795 the Due de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt paid a 
visit to the Governor and he has left us an interesting account of what he 
saw. Another exile of the French Revolution, Count de Puisaye, lived in 
the neighborhood of Niagara from 1798 to 1802. His mission was to estab- 
lish a military colony of French Loyalists in Upper Canada but in this he 
was unsuccessful. A brother of Sir Walter Scott was at one time quartered 
with his regiment at Niagara, "poor Tom, a man of infinite humor and excel- 
lent parts" Sir Walter says of him. Tom Scott died in Canada. Many 
people at one time thought that he was the author of "Waverley." Tom 
Moore, the poet, came in 1804 as the guest of General Brock and spent a 
very pleasant fortnight. 

WiUiam Dickson, in April 1794, was married to Charlotte Adlam, an 
English lady, daughter of Captain Adlam, of the Royal Navy. The notice 
of the wedding is found in the register of St. Marks, though that fine old 
church was not begun till 1804. Mr. Dickson was a member of the Niagara 
Library from 1800 to 1820. He had himself a valuable collection of books 
which were burnt with his house in 1813. We find his name also among the 
early members of the Agricultural Society. He early began to take an inter- 


est in farming, a pursuit that was to occupy much of his attention in latef 
years. The Agricultural Society was started in 1792. At the monthly din- 
ners a great silver mounted snuflf box was handed round. Each president 
kept it during his year of office and then handed it over to his successor who 
I suppose refilled it. In 1796, in accordance with the terms of the Jay 
Treaty, Fort Niagara was given up by the British and for the first time be- 
came the property of the United States. The garrison, along with the guns 
and the stores, were removed to Fort George, a recently constructed fort 
on the Canadian side of the river. With an American fortress opposite it 
and commanding it, Niagara was no longer a suitable place for the seat of 
Government, and the Capital was changed to York, the name at that time 
given to Toronto. In this year also, the first parliament of Upper Canada 
was dissolved. Governor Simcoe was recalled shortly after the dissolution. 
He was an honest and capable Governor, though his ideas of government 
were too aristocratic to suit the people of Upper Canada. 

In 1803 William Dickson received a special license to practise at the 
provincial bar. By an act passed in July 1794, the Governor was authorized 
to license "such as he shall deem from their probity, education and condition 
in life, best qualified to act as advocates and attorneys in the conduct of 
legal proceedings." A better choice could perhaps not have been made than 
of Mr. Dickson whose probity was unquestionable, who had received the 
rudiments at least of a good education and whose position in society was 
acknowledged. It seems from the wording of the act that an extensive or 
thorough knowledge of law was not regarded as essential. If we give the 
subject any thought we will come to the conclusion that at that time and in 
that community what Josh Billings called "strong hoss sense" would be much 
more useful to a lawyer than a complete knowledge of legal technicalities. 
Mr. Dickson practised in Niagara for a number of years with success. He 
frequently acted in the magisterial capacity of a Justice of the Peace or a 
Judge of the District Court. 

In 1806 an event of a painful nature occurred at Niagara which shows 
the method by which gentlemen at that period not infrequently adjusted 
their differences. I shall quote from the Albany Gazette of the time: — 

"Mr. Weekes, a gentleman from Ireland who has practised at the Bar 
"of Upper Canada for some years past, had the misfortune not to stand well 
"with the late Governor (Simcoe) of that Province, and was at variance 
"also with several of the most respectable members of the Government. 
"On Monday, 6th October, he took the opportunity in an argument from 
"the bar to abuse in terms of very gross invective, the memory of the late 
"Governor and the character of several of his most intimate friends. This 
"was passed over by the Judge without notice. Mr. Dickson, also a coun- 
"selor at law, was engaged in the same cause with Mr. Weekes and followed 
"him in support of the question before the Court. Before concluding, how- 
"ever, he thought it his duty as a gentleman and a lawyer to enter his strong- 
"est protest against such declaration saying he conceived it originated in 
"personal malice and malevolence and that were he the judge on the bench 
"he would not permit such language to pass without censure. Nothing 
"further happened in Court, nor was anything further intended at the time, 
"as we believe, by either of the parties. Unfortunately, Mr. Weekes spent 
"the following day and night with a party at a tavern in the country. 
"Circumstances have led us to suppose that his resentment against Mr. 
"Dickson had been roused by the conversation of this party. Perhaps 
"some hasty promise was then made to avenge the affront. On Wednes- 
"day a man calling himself Major Hart, was sent by Mr. Weekes with a 
"message to Mr. Dickson insisting on his making such an apology as Mr. 
"Weekes might dictate and that this should be read in open court or that 
"he should give him satisfaction in another way. The first was inadmissible, 
"but Mr. Dickson recurring to the alternative which he highly disapproved 
"made through a friend a proposition to Mr. Weekes that if he would state 
"in the Court that the language he made use of on a former day was only to 
"support the cause he was engaged in and had nothing personal against the 
"character of Governor Simcoe, that he, Mr. Dickson, would in the same 


"free manner declare his sorrow for having misunderstood him. This being 
"absolutely refused, they agreed to meet. 

"As no gentleman could be found, who would associate with Major 
"Hart, he was set aside, and Mr. John McKee went in his place. Dr. Kerr 
"(a son-in-law of Sir William Johnson) accompanied Mr. Dickson. They 
"met on the American side of the river, near Fort Niagara, at 7 o'clock in 
"in the morning of Friday, 10th October. At a distance of twenty yards 
"they fired nearly together. Mr. Weekes missed his aim, but Mr. Dickson's 
"ball entering Mr. Weekes' right side, went through his body. He died 
"about twelve o'clock the following day." 

Public opinion was strongly in favor of Mr. Dickson, and, as- the duel 
had occurred on American soil, no legal proceedings appear to have been 
taken in the matter. 

Mr. Dickson visited Scotland in 1809, taking with him his sons, Robert 
and William, whom he placed in a school in Edinburgh, where his youngest 
brother Walter, who was a writer to the Signet, lived. Walter took a fath- 
erly interest in the lads and reported from time to time to their father at 
Niagara the progress they ■ were making in their studies. Mr. Dickson's 
letters to his brother in Edinburgh are not very interesting reading, but they 
leave the impression that the writer was a kind hearted man in whom family 
affection was strong. 

In the war, which came in 1812, Mr. Dickson does not seem to have 
taken an active part. Shortly after the taking of Niagara by the Americans, 
May 27th, 1813, he and a number of leading residents were, in violation of 
a promise made to them by General Dearborn, seized and taken prisoners 
to Albany, the journey thither lasting almost two months, and being attended 
by many privations. It was not till the end of the following January that 
Mr. Dickson, liberated on parole, reached home to find his house in ruins. 
Before retreating the Americans had burnt the town. By this unprovoked 
and cruel act several hundred people were rendered homeless and many 
destitute. Mrs. William Dickson, who was sick at the time, was carried out 
and from a couch placed on the snow, watched the burning of her home. 

Retribution came quickly. In a few days Lewiston and other villages 
on the American side were given to the flames and Fort Niagara stormed and 
its garrison taken prisoners. 

Colonel Thomas Dickson, William's younger brother, commanded the 
2nd Lincoln Militia Regiment at the battle of Chippewa, where his conduct 
and bravery and the gallantry of the regiment under his command, earned 
high commendation from General Riall. In this battle Colonel Dickson 
was wounded. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly which met 
at York, and he carried on a successful business at Queenston. He died in 
1825. and his grave is in the burying place of the Hamilton family. 

The fratricidal war came to an end in 1815. It decided nothing except 
that Canada should remain British. The short-sighted and cruel treatment 
of the Loyalists after the Revolution drove thousands of them into Canada. 
They carried with them the bitter feelings which persecution had engendered 
and were ready to take up arms in defense of the country that had sheltered 
them and given them homes. Among the Canadians, affection for the 
motherland was strong. England had treated them generously. It had 
given them home rule. In Lower Canada it had respected the wishes of 
the French population, leaving to them their Church and in a large meas- 
ure their old laws. To the Canadians of Upper Canada it had granted a 
constitution which if not "the express image and transcript of the British 
Constitution" satisfied for a time their desire for self-government. The 
hypocritical assurances of American demagogues that they were coming as 
liberators to an oppressed people, were treated with the scorn that such 
assertions deserved. Canadians felt themselves competent to work out 
their own destiny under the aegis of Britain. The war cost many valu- 
able lives and left bitter feelings that only a full century of peace has eradi- 
cated. To the credit of the New England States be it said that they were 
opposed to the war. To this opposition may be ascribed the immunity 
from invasion which Canada enjoyed on her north-eastern frontier. 


In November 1815 William Dickson was summoned to take his place 
in the Legislative Council of Upper Canada. He lived to witness and take 
some part in the great struggle for Responsible Government which was about 
to commence. In the politics of that time he belonged to the Family 
Compact, which though it contained many conscientious and excellent men, 
must now be regarded as the party of retrogression. 

In 1784, the British Government gave its friends and allies, the Six 
Nation Indians, a strip of land six miles on each side of the Grand River, 
from Lake Erie to the falls of the river at Elora, and containing over a half 
million acres. This land, which is now one of the most valuable and pro- 
ductive areas in the Province, was at that time a wilderness. After it came 
into possession of the Six Nations, they used it merely as a hunting-ground. 
The only portion of it which they made any attempt to cultivate, is what is 
now called the Indian Reserve, a few miles below Brantford. The lands 
on the upper reaches of the Grand River, the Indians, after keeping for 
about a dozen years, expressed a desire to sell. They sold to Mr. Philip 
Stedman, of Fort Erie, on March 2nd, 1795 (see 1914 Report W. H. S.), the 
block of land, afterwards known as the township of Dumfries, giving him a 
deed signed by Joseph Brant and forty-one other sachems and war chiefs. 
A Crown Patent, granted in 1798, was required to validate Stedman's title. 
After Stedman's death there were a number of transfers, which it is unneces- 
sary for me to recount, till the land was purchased by Hon. Thomas Clarke, 
of Stamford, in 1811. In that year Clarke turned the land over to Mr. 
Dickson, probably giving him an agreement for sale. The deed from Clarke 
to Dickson was not given till July 3rd, 1816. The land, which Mr. Dickson 
acquired, was a block a little more than twelve miles square containing 
94,305 acres. The southern boundary crossed the Grand River at the point 
where it is joined by the Nith. The place was known at that time as the 
"Forks of Grand River." The price paid for the land including the assump- 
tion of a mortgage is said to have been ;£24,000, which reckoned in Halifax 
currency, would amount to $96,000, or at the rate of a little more than a 
dollar an acre. 

Having obtained his deed, Mr. Dickson with characteristic energy set 
about the work of settlement. He was fortunate in his choice of an assis- 
tant in this task. Mr. Absalom Shade was a young Pennsylvanian, shrewd, 
wide-awake and money-making. The son of a farmer and by trade a car- 
penter, he had every qualification needed for leadership in a backwoods 

On a July day in 1816, Mr. Dickson and Mr. Shade set out on their 
journey from Niagara to Dumfries. Mr. Dickson wished to explore the 
country and somewhere on the Grand River to choose the site of a village 
which would serve as a trading centre for the farmers who should settle on 
his lands. The travellers after reaching Hamilton, took "The Governor's 
Road" to "the Forks of Grand River." From thence they engaged an 
Indian guide. Mounted on ponies, they followed the old Indian trail which 
led up the east side of the stream till they arrived at the place where the 
Mill Creek joins the river. Here they were not only struck with the beauty 
of the spot but also with its suitability for the village site. At this point 
in its course the river runs between banks high enough to confine its waters 
even at flood time to its proper channel. By the construction of dams on 
the river and the creek ample water-power could be obtained at moderate 
cost and the comparatively level ground between the streams afforded 
good locations for houses and stores. Proceeding up the creek a couple of 
hundred yards our site seekers came upon the remains of a little mill that 
had been built by an early settler and abandoned, probably for the reason 
that no good title could be obtained for the land on which the mill was built. 
This little mill Mr. Shade afterwards "fixed up" and it was used till it was 
superseded by the "Dumfries Mills." After lingering some time on the site 
of the future village, the explorers continued their journey up the river and 
found shelter for the night in the little log cabin of a squatter on the flats 
below Cruickston Park. Here they had reached the northern limit of the 
purchase and next morning they returned to the Mill Creek, and having 


taken another look at the place, were more than ever pleased with the loca- 
tion they had fixed upon. 

A log house, one end of which contained a little store in which Mr. 
Shade and his wife served at the counter, was the first building erected in 
the village. It was situated, according to Mr. Young, where Mr. Sloan's 
grocery now stands. After that followed a saw mill in 1817, and the Dum- 
fries Mills in 1818. In the following year the Main Street bridge was built. 
A small distillery commenced work in 1820. It stood on the south side of 
Chapman Street, about half way between Ainslie Street and the G. T. R. 
tracks. In 1821 a tavern was built at the Woods and Taylor corner. 
Despite these conveniences of civilization, the little village grew very slowly 
for a number of years. The fact is that immigration from Britain had 
hardly commenced. The backwoods of Upper Canada were harder to 
reach than Timbuctoo would be now. As yet Canada had no immigration 
agencies and the country was generally considered in Europe as a land of 
snow and ice, the fitting abode of the trapper and Indian. Mr. Dickson 
soon realized the necessity of making known the benefits that Canada, and 
especially Dumfries, offered to the enterprising and industrious immigrant. 
He sent agents to Scotland and through their efforts and through articles 
he supplied to the Scottish press, a large number of small farmers from the 
south of Scotland were induced to give up their holdings and to take up land 
in the new township. The land was offered at about three dollars an acre. 
How these settlers were treated is best described in the following extract 
from a resolution passed at a public meeting held in Gait in 1839, for the 
purpose of inviting Mr. Dickson to a dinner to be given him by the inhabi- 
tants of Dumfries: — "That the settlers of this township are under a hea-vy 
debt of gratitude to its original proprietor, the Hon. Wm. Dickson, not only 
for that indulgence and considerate lenity for which he has always been 
distinguished, but for the parental and effective aid with which he strength- 
ened the hands of very many of his earliest settlers, and enabled them to 
contend with and overcome the manifold difficulties encompassing those 
who without means take up land and locate in the woods." 

Mr. Dickson, who had hitherto lived at Niagara, took up his residence 
in Gait in 1827. He lived in the village until 1836, when he returned to his 
residence of "Woodlawn" near Niagara, leaving the management of his 
affairs to his son, William Dickson. In 1827, the village which up to this 
had been known as "Shade's Mills", was now given the name of "Gait", in 
honor of John Gait, the Scottish novelist, who paid a visit to his friend, Mr. 
Dickson, in that year. As Mr. Gait was only a little boy five years old, 
and living in Irvine, when in 1784 Mr. Dickson came to Canada, they could 
not have been school companions in Edinburgh as Mr. Young states, but 
meeting in Canada in 1827, they may well have become friends, for they 
were men of similar tastes and at that time were both deeply interested in 
the sale of farm lands. 

During the period of Mr. Dickson's residence in Gait, he lived in a little 
rough-cast house near the south-east corner of Queen's Square, and after- 
wards in a house, of which only part of the foundation remains, on the hill 
above Crescent Street. 

In the thirties the wisdom of Mr. Dickson's policy of advertising the 
merits of Dumfries, became apparent in the large number of Scotch farmers 
who took up land. As the township filled up with these settlers, the village 
became prosperous. The chief lack was of roads, especially of a good road 
to the head of navigation at Hamilton, between which place and Gait the 
Beverly Swamp presented an almost impassable barrier to travel. It was 
not till 1837 that a macadamized road was commenced. This road, built 
at Government expense, added much to the prosperity of the townships of 
Beverly, Dumfries and Waterloo. 

I might tell more about Mr. Dickson did space permit, but I trust that 
I have told enough to bring out the character of the man, his indomitable 
perseverance, courage, energy, enterprise, business ability, kindness. He 
liked to make money, no doubt, and he succeeded. We would like to make 
money also, but some of us do not succeed. We do not gjudge to him his 
success and we remember that he took a leading part in the establishment 


and development of an intelligent, loyal, honest, God-fearing, and indiistrious 
community in Canada and for that we honor him. 

A few words about Mr. Dickson's family may not be uninteresting. 
The Hon. William Dickson had three sons, Robert (1796-1846), William 
(1799-1877), and Walter H. (1806-1884). Robert and Walter were barris- 
ters, and lived at Niagara. They were both in the Militia and probably 
both served as cavalry officers during the Rebellion of 1837. Walter repre- 
.sented Niagara in the Assembly from 1841-1851. He was appointed a Legis- 
lative Councilor in 1855 and after Confederation he sat in the Dominion 
Senate. Robert also was a Councilor. He died at Leghorn, Italy, in 1846. 
William lived at Kirkmichael, Gait, where he died in 1877. Hon. Walter 
Hamilton Dickson, of Niagara, married Augusta Maria Geale, daughter of 
Lieutenant Benjamin Geale, 49th Regiment. They had five sons and four 
daughters — William, Walter Augustus, Julia, Mary Louisa, Robert George, 
John Geale, Florence Augusta, Arthur and Augusta Maria. 


"Dumfries, July 16th, 1816. 

"Land Sales, Concessions No. 2 and 3. 

"Dr. to Land Account. 

"Sold to Richard Phillips lots No. 4 in the 

"2nd and 4 and 5 in the 3rd Concession, 

"600 acres at 15 shillings per acre, ^450." 

This is probably the first sale of land to any settler in the Township of 
Dumfries. In the Sales Book in which this entry is found two or three 
sales of land in December of the same year follow. 



Herbert Joseph Bowman, elder 
son of Israel D. Bowman, was born 
June 18th, 1865 in BerHn, Canada 
West, now Kitchener, Ontario, 
where he died June 19th, 1916. 
He was a direct descendant of 
Wendel Baumann, a native of 
Switzerland, who came to Pennsyl- 
vania early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Between H. J. Bowman and 
his ancestor Wendel Baumann only 
four progenitors intervene: Jacob, 
Martin, Henry B., and Israel D., 
in order of descent. Henry B., 
grandfather, was born in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1805, and 
came to Canada with his mother 
when a young man. In company 
with John Hoffman he opened the 
second store in the then straggling 
village of Berlin in 1837. 
Israel D. Bowman was appointed County Clerk March 27th, 1861, "dur- 
ing the pleasure of the Council," held the office thirty-five years, until his 
death in 1896, and was succeeded by Herbert J., who continued for twenty 
years. Father and son together thus held the County Clerkship of Water- 
loo County for all but eight years since the beginning of this office. 

Our subject attended the public and high schools of his native place, 
matriculating in 1882 and entering the then recently instituted School of 
Practical Science, Toronto University, of which he was one of the first grad- 
uates, where he took the course in Civil Engineering. In 1885, his last year 
at the University, he took part, as member of the Queen's Own Rifles, in 
the suppression of the Kiel Rebellion in the then Saskatchewan Territory, 
and was the only one from his home town to do so. On his return the Town 
Council gave him a public reception and a silver memorial watch. He 
soon became connected with the 29th Regiment of Waterloo County, in 
which he remained for nearly fifteen years, latterly as Commanding Officer. 
Professionally, Mr. Bowman was in due course appointed Provincial 
Land Surveyor and Dominion Land Surveyor and had general practice as 
surveyor and engineer, devoting himself in time more particularly to water- 
works engineering, designing waterworks for a number of municipalities, 
etc. He was engineer and manager of the local waterworks when privately 
owned. In 1899, the year after the municipality bought the plant, Mr. 
Bowman was elected on the Board of Water Commissioners. On this he 
remained by successive re-election every year but one for the rest of his 
life, and was, by reason of his previous knowledge of the plant and attain- 
ments as engineer, of special value in this public service. He was elected 
Associate Member of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers in 1888 and 
Member in 1896. He was President of the Ontario Land Surveyors' 
Association in 1899. 


Mr. Bowman's public spirit was further shown by his keen interest 
in the Good Roads movement. He was for years Inspector of County 
roads. In 1913 he visited England as delegate of the Ontario Good Roads 
Association to the Third International Road Congress in London. He 
was on the executive of the Waterloo County Canadian Club, and was 
President in 1914; was Member of Council of the local Civic Association 
and of the Waterloo Historical Society. 

Col. Bowman's sterling patriotism is evinced by the fact that he was 
the first, shortly after the war broke out, to organize a local force. This 
was the 108th Militia Regiment, of which he remained Commanding Officer 
to the time of his death. This regiment supplied most of the officers and 
over two hundred and fifty men to the 118th Battalion, Overseas Forces. 
He also personally offered for active service in the war; failing health, 
developing later, prevented his assignment to active duty. 

Col. Bowman was a Liberal in politics, and a member of the First 
Church of Christ, Scientist. In 1889 he married Edith Walker of Hamilton, 
youngest sister of Sir Edmund Walker. His sorrowing wife, two daughters 
and two sons survive. 



by his son 
Michael G. Sherk. 

My father, Abraham Break Sherk, was born Nov. 6th, 1832, near where 
is now situated the village of Breslau, in Waterloo County, Ontario. His 
father, Samuel Sherk, was nephew and stepson of Joseph Sherk, who with 
his brother-in-law, David Betzner, were the first to locate in the township of 
Waterloo. His mother was Magdalena Break, whose widowed mother 
came to the settlement with her children in 1806. We need make no fur- 
ther mention of the connection of the family with the beginning of this, 
one of the most prosperous sections of the province, as this has been fully 
written up by my father and others, but will endeavor, at Mr. Breithaupt's 
request, to give a brief memoir of his life. 

Born of Pennsylvania-German stock, on a "Waterloo Dutch" home- 
stead, he understood all the peculiarities and characteristics of that people, 
and always spoke lovingly and feelingly of his early home life with "Doddie 
and Mommie." His parents were for years members of the River Brethren 
(Dunker) Church, when all their preaching was in private houses and their 
church societies scattered. He attended school on the "High Banks" near 
his home till his nineteenth year, when on a summer's day in 1851, he 
wrapped all his necessaries in a red bandana handkerchief and on foot wend- 
ed his way to Rockwood Academy, eight miles from Guelph, where he was 
received kindly by Wm. Wetherald, the Quaker teacher, a devoted Chris- 
tian, and one who took a kindly interest in the moral and intellectual wel- 
fare of the boys under him. After spending the summer session of three 
months at the academy he went before the Educational Board of Examiners 
at Guelph * made up of the township superintendents, and taught school 
near his home, in the school which he had formerly attended. He also 
taught school in the village of Plattsville, but which year it was I am not 
prepared to say. He had learned of Oberlin College, Ohio, which at that 
time had a summer session instead of a winter, to accommodate students 
who wished to teach in the winter time, from the late I. L. Bowman, and 
several other Waterloo County boys who had been there. In the spring of 
1852 he set out for Oberlin. It might be interesting to know how he first 
travelled there. By stage from Preston to Hamilton; from Hamilton to 
Lewiston by boat; from Lewiston to the Falls by stage; from the Falls to 
Buffalo by train; from Buffalo to Cleveland by boat (as the Lake Shore 
road between Buffalo and Cleveland was then only in course of construction); 
from Cleveland to Wellington, eight miles from Oberlin, by rail, and the 
balance of the journey by stage. He also attended this school in 1854 but 
the Lake Shore road between Buffalo and Cleveland was then completed. 
It was here he got his ideas of systematic thinking and studying, and also 
by the reading of Todd's Student's Manual. The religious character of the 
place, which was at that time being thoroughly grounded and imbued with 
the principles of evangelical Christianity by Chas. G. Finney, the great 
preacher and evangelist (who was then and for many years after the presi- 
dent of the college, and whose influence is felt there to-day as if he still 
walked the streets of the town), so impressed him that he here decided to be 
a follower of Christ, and to enter the Christian ministry. It was here he 
also heard some of the great men of the day lecture on moral and social 
questions; Frederick Douglass, the great abolitionist, on slavery and Elihu 
Burritt, the "learned blacksmith", on "Ocean Penny Postage." 

I might say, many of his high ideals of character early received quite 
an impetus from Henry Krupp (afterwards Rev. H. Krupp) who was for a 
time a teacher in the public school he attended; from Wm. Wetherald, the 
Quaker teacher at Rockwood Academy, and at Oberlin College. My 
father was so true to his ideals of life and character that he never lost sight 
of them, never wavered from them. After his second term at Oberlin Col- 

* Waterloo County was then a part of Wellington County. 


lege he taught school for a time and then gave up his life to the Christian 
ministry. He joined the church of the United Brethren in Christ — a church 
which had its beginning among the Germans of Pennsylvania. They were 
at that time sending evangelistic preachers to establish churches in Canada, 
and were meeting with a good deal of success in the Pennsylvania-German 
settlements. He was to have preached next Sunday (Dec. 3rd) in three 
churches he established sixty years ago near Wellandport. He continued 
to preach for the U. B. Church in Canada till 1884, when he moved to the 
United States. During his ministry in Canada he travelled largely and 
was well known in parts of the Niagara district, Waterloo, Bruce and Grey 

It was in the Niagara district he became acquainted with Rebekah 
Gonder, daughter of the late M. D. Gonder, a U. E. L. descendant who 
lived on the homestead on the Niagara river, eight miles above the Falls 
which his grandfather had located in 1796. He was married to my mother 
in 1859. His ministerial life in Canada took him among all classes of peo- 
ple — into the cabin of the pioneer and into the luxurious homes of the well- 
to-do. He was welcome among all, as he was friendly with the lowly and 
was esteemed by the more prosperous on account of his high character and 

After moving to the United States he preached for several years for 
the U. B. Church and then joined the Congregational Church and was pas- 
tor of churches in Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York States until 1897 
when he came to Toronto to live near his two sons, A. E. and M. G. Sherk, and 
on account of the advanced age of his wife who was 4 }/2 years his senior and 
who pre-deceased him 1 year and 7 months. This did not end his minis- 
terial labors, however, for he continued to supply churches for months at a 
time in Pennsylvania and New York States, a mission church in the west 
end of Toronto, and latterly for four or five years the two Congregational 
Churches (Pine Grove and Humber Summit), near Woodbridge, Ontario. 
For the last two years he has been an attendant at the Don Mills Metho- 
dist Church near his home but still he loved to go away occasionally to preach 
to the churches he had formerly been pastor of. Only last summer he took 
a trip to New York State to spend a Sabbath and preach for one of the 
churches at their request, and every month or two he went to see the mem- 
bers of the churches near Woodbridge, who loved and revered him. 

It can be said of my father that he was a man of God. The Bible 
was to him an open book and he was familiar with every part of it and yet 
he was constantly perusing it, and when not attending to other duties he 
was to be seen Bible in hand or on the table before him. His studious 
character did not end with his school career — he was a student all through 
life and I might say particularly a student of the Bible. 

He was early in his ministry and always a strong advocate of our edu- 
cated clergy and the higher education of the laity. It was with this object 
in view that Freeport Academy (at Freeport, Waterloo Tp.) of which he 
was one of the promoters, and for a short time a teacher, was started. One 
of his associates in this enterprise was the late Isaac L. Bowman who was 
its first principal. Owing to insufficient funds, however, this institution 
was only in existence a few years. 

Among his first ministerial colleagues in the U. B. Church and associated 
with him for many years were Revs. David B. Sherk (his brother), Jacob 
B. Bowman and Geo. Plowman, the first two being residents of Berlin (now 
Kitchener), for a long time previous to their death, the last one having his 
home at FVeeport where he lived before and after retiring from the ministry. 

Although feeling indisposed for the last month he was only seriously 
ill for a few days previous to his death, Nov. 27th, 1916. He retained his 
consciousness to the last and although greatly distressed, expressed him- 
self as anxious to go home. 

As a last tribute to the memory of my lamented father, I wish to say 
that I knew him to be a man of exceptional Cnristian character, high ideals, 
broad knowledge, broad in his sympathies, non-sectarian, respected by all, 
and revered by many. 
Toronto; Dec. 2nd, 1916. 


Rev. A. B. Sherk 


Major G. H. Bowlby 


On Sunday morning, November 12th, news came to Kitchener, Ont., 
his native city, that Major G. H. Bowlby, Director of Medical Service, 
Canadian Expeditionary Forces, had met his death in a fall from a cliflf 
near Seaford, on the south coast of England. The City Hall flag 
was placed at half mast in token of respect to the memory of this dis- 
tinguished citizen and ex-mayor. 

George Herbert Bowlby, elder son of the late Dr. D. S. and Martha 
Murphy Bowlby, was born July 16th, 1865. His great grandfather, an 
early United Empire Loyalist, left the State of New Jersey to settle in Nova 
Scotia. His grandfather, as a young man, was Captain of Coast Guards, in 
Nova Scotia, in the war of 1812. 

After preliminary education at the public and high schools of his native 
place, and a year at St. Jerome's College, he took the course in medicine 
at Trinity Medical College, Toronto, and later took post graduate 
work in England where he became Licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians and Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
For some years he was in partnership with his father in the practice 
of his profession. Devoting himself more particularly to surgery, in which 
he eventually became eminent, he again went abroad for study and exper- 
ience in Vienna and elsewhere. In 1906 he returned to resume regular prac- 
tice. He was for some years identified with the County cavalry regiment, 
known as Grey's Horse, of which he was medical officer, with the rank of 
Captain. He was on the Medical Advisory Committee of the local hospital, 
in which he took keen interest. 

Dr. Bowlby was for some years in the Town Council and was Mayor 
in 1901. 

The breaking out of the war naturally found a man of Dr. Bowlby's 
patriotism and antecedents anxious to do his part. On application he 
received appointment on hospital service in England, with retention of his 
previous rank of Captain, and left this city in July 1915. He was active 
at the military hospital, Shorncliffe, England, later at Bath, and recently 
at Seaford. Shortly before his tragic death he was promoted to be Director 
of Medical Service, and to the rank of Major. 

From his school days G. H. Bowlby was prominent in sports. He was 
a member of the famous Berlin High School football eleven in the early 
eighties. He was a member of the Waterloo County Golf and Country 
Club, and charter member of the Grand River Country Club. 

He was a past warden of St. John's Anglican Chiu-ch. 

In 1894 he married Adine, only daughter of Joseph E. Seagram, Esq. 
Mrs. Bowlby accompanied her husband to England. 

Of the Waterloo Historical Society, Dr. Bowlby was an active and 
helpful Member of Council from its beginning. 


Donations Received in 1916 

Daily News and News Record files; loaned by W, V. Uttley. 

Deutsche Canadier, 1849, 1850, 1854, 1855; Freie Presse, 1886, 1887; 
donated by Miss Hett, Kitchener. 

Daily Telegraph and Daily News-Record, 1915; donated by Kitch- 
ener Public Library. 

Canada Museum, first volume, 1835, 1836; loaned by Alex. 
Peterson, Hawkesville, Ont. 

Pennsylvania Packet, one issue, July 8th, 1776; donated by Mrs. 
H. J. Bowman, Kitchener. 

Elmira Signet, 1916; donated by C. W. Schierholtz, Elmira. 

Gait Weekly Reporter, 1916; donated by Reporter Press. 

Copy of Watercolor, 1856, of Breslau Bridge over Grand River; 
donated by Grand Trunk Railway Co. 

Large Illustrated Wall Map of Waterloo County, 1861; donated by 
Rev. Theo. Spetz, Kitchener. 

Photographs of portraits of Hon. Wm. Dickson and Wm. Dickson, Jr.; 
donated by Mrs. Pringle, Preston. 

Photograph of Herbert Bowman; donated by Mrs. H. J. Bowman, 

Photograph of Rev. A. B. Sherk; donated by M. G. Sherk, Toronto. 

Photograph of Niagara Falls, 1863 ; donated by C. A. Boehm, Waterloo* 

Framed photographs, 111th Battalion, whole; and officers 111th 
Battalion; donated by Gait City Council. 

Photograph and muster roll, 118th Battalion; donated by Col. 
W. M. 0. Lochead. 

Preston, 1856; lithograph; donated by C. C. J. Maas, Preston. 


List of Members 


Hon. W. G. Weichel, M. P Waterloo 

Hon. F. S. Scott, M. P Gait 

Hon Z. A. Hall, M. P. P Hespeler 

Hon. C. H. Mills, M. P. P Kitchener 

Mayor J. E. Hett, M. D Kitchener 

Mayor A. M. Edwards Gait 


John B. Bricker Ayr 

Henry Brodhaecker Elmira 

Fred Debus New Hamburg 

Wesley Erb New Dundee 

John R. Folsetter Ayr 

A. C. Hallman Breslau 

August Janzen Centreville 

W. H. Kutt Waterloo 

Fred. Lackner Hawkesville 

George Z. Lantz Baden 

F. C. Meyer :... Elmira 

A. C. Moyer Waterloo 

D. N. Panabaker Hespeler 

John Reidel St. Clements 

E. B, Reist Preston 

Paul Snider, Warden Elmira 

B. W. Zieman Preston 


Bean, D. A. Millar, Alex., K. C. 

Beaumont, E. J. Mills, C. H., M. P. P. 

Bowlby, D. S. Moore, J. D. 

Bowlby, Capt. G. H., M. D. Motz, W. J., M. A. 

Bowman, Lieut.-Col. H. J. Potter, George 

Bowman, H. M., M. A., Ph. D. Ruby, Charles 

Breithaupt, A. L. Schiedel, Martin 

Breithaupt, W. H. Schmalz, W. H. 

Bricker, M. M. Schmidt, G. C. 

Brown, H. W., B. A. Scully, Miss Annie 

Clement, E. P., K. C. Scully, J. M. 

Dunham, Miss B. M., B. A. Shantz, E. R. 

Fennell, John Sims, H. J. 

Fisher, P. Smith, 0. G. 


Forsyth, D., B. A. 
Green, Mrs. J. W. 
Hagedorn, C. K. 
Hall, M. C. 

Honsberger, J. F., M. D. 
Jackson, Miss G. 
Klotz, J. E. 
Knell, Henry 
Lackner, H. G., M. D. 
Lautenschlaeger, R. W. 
Lynn, Rev. J. E. 

Smyth, Robt. 
Snider, E. W. B. 
Spetz, Rev. Theo. 
Staebler, H. L. 
Uttley, W. V. 
Wedd, G. M. 
Weir, J. J. A. 
Williams, S. J. 
Witzel, T. A. 
Zinger, Rev. A. L. 

Blake, J. R. 
Cant, Hugh 
Clarke, Lieut.-Col. J. 
Foster, W. J. 
Gundy, A. P., B. A. 
Kerr, James E. 



MacKendrick, J. N., B. A. 
Middleton, J. F. 
Norman, Lambert, M. A. 
Scott, F. S., M. P. 
Vair, Thomas 
Wardlaw, J. S., M. D. 

Bauman, A. F., M. D. 
Boehm, C. A. 
Fischer, W. J., M. D. 
Foster, Arthur 
Hilliard, Thomas 


Playford, B. B. 
Roos, P. H. 
Shuh, Levi 
Wegenast, George 
Weichel, William G., M. P. 

Auman, William 
Ratz, George 
Ruppel, George 
Schierholtz, C. W. 


Vogt, Oscar 
Weichel, J. H. 
Werner, August 

Richmond, Elliott 
Snider, W. W. 
Snyder, Alfred 


Snyder, W. H. 
Wideman, John L. 
Winkler, W. H. 

Debus, Fred New Hamburg 

McCallum, Capt. F. H New Hamburg 

Ritz, Daniel New Hamburg 

Donald, M Preston 

Hanning, Judge C. R Preston 

Reist, E. B Preston 

Shantz, P. E Preston 

Watson, Alfred G Ayr 

Watson, Archie E Ayr 

Smith, A. R. G Haysville 

Bowman, F. M Pittsburg, Pa 

Vog^, August S., D. Mus Toronto 

Eby, Oscar S Hespeler 

Panabaker, D. N Hespeler 

Shaw, W. C Hespeler 

Musselroan, Geo. L Conestogo 







nr^S^!^^^ pr^ 






1 (<^ pr^^!^^^j pr^^<^^^aj ftr'^ 
















C. H. MILLS, M.P.P. 
W. J. MOTZ, B.A. 



Annual Meeting 11 

Presldeint's Address 13 

Waterloo County Railway History 14 

Preston, Klotz History 24 

Roll of Honour 41 

Experiences with First W. Ont. Regt., C. 
E.F., by Corp. E. Wackett 43 


D. S. Bowlby, M. ^ 49 

W. H. Bowlby, K.C 50 

J. D. Moore 52 

David Spiers 53 

M. N. Todd 54 

S. J. Cherry 55 

John Zryd 66 

Wm. Hejndry 57 

J. B. Snider 58 

Edward Halter 59 

J. Li. "Wideman 61 

J. G. Reiner 62 

Donations, 1917 64 

Catalog of Museum 65 

Index, Reports I.-V 68 


Preston, Frontispiece. 
Cambridge Mills, 1886. 
Portraits — See Biographies. 





Annual Meeting 

• Kitchener, Out., Nov. 16th., 1917. 
The Fifth Annual Meeting of the Waterloo Historical 
Society was held in the Museum in the Public Library on 
the above date, the President, W. H. Breithaupt, in the chair. 

Secretary-Treasurer's Repvort 

The fifth anniversary of the organization of the Waterloo 
Historical Society has just passed and in a retrospect over 
the years just passed we cannot fail to notice the good be- 
ginning that has been made but also that a great deal re- 
mains to be done before the aim of the Society shall in a 
measure have been attained. 

The past year has been an eventful one in the history 
of the world, a year of great suffering, of great patriotism, 
liberality and sacrifice. 

Waterloo County has taken its place among the counties 
of the province which have given of their wealth and their 
manhood to secure the victory for liberty and democracy. 

As far as our Society is concerned the past year has been 
uneventful. Our members are devoting their energies to 
the struggle overseas. We hope that when the war is over 
we shall all have more time to give to the interests of our 

As in 1916, so in 1917, the Public Library Board has 
continued its splendid support of the Society in providing 
quarters for the museum as well as light and heat. 

Our annual reports are being sought after in many quar- 
ters, proving that our transactions are arousing interest. The 
museum is being visited more frequently than formerly by 
persons in search of information contained in our fyles. 

In our report this year we hope to continue the Roll of 
Honour begun last year. A request in the County newspapers 
to have data in this connection sent to the Society failed to 
bring results and other measures will have to be adopted 
to secure this information. 

Our membership has remained practically stationary. 
Each member should interest not only himself but assist 
in securing at least one new member in the year. Our 
strength as a Society will lie to some extent at least in a 
good membership as that would mean a more extended in- 
terest and the field would be more thoroughly worked. 

The financial statement in the report of 1916 showed 
a balance of $27.71. We have so far received the legislative 
grant of $100, the county grant of $50, a grant from the city 
of Gait of $25, and a similar grant of $25 from the city of 
Kitchener. These grants together with the fees from mem- 
bers should be sufficient to cover our expenditure and leave 
a balance at the end of 1917. 

11 Secretary-Treasurer. 


Financial Statement for 1917 


Balance on hand January 1st., 1917 . .' I 27.71 

Members Fees ....... .\ ................... .% 64.50 

Legislative Grant ..... . . .'. . . . . . . . 100.00 

Waterloo County Grant ' 50.00 

Kitchener City Grant .'. 25.00 

Gait City Grant 25.00 

Kitchener Public Library Grant . .' 11.53 

Sale of 1916 Reports 5.75 $281.78 


Postage and Stationery . $ 19.35 

Printing ..'..' 9.35 

Advertising . 17.55 

Rent . .'. . . '. . 12.00 

Bookbinding 24.80 

Caretaker . . .• 5.00 

Secretary 30.00 

Fifth Annual Report 120.00 $238.05 

Balance on hand . $71.44 

Audited and found correct, 

J. M. SCULLY, F.C.A.. Auditor. 
Kitchener, 16th. January, 1918. 

Election of Officers 

The officers for 1918 are: 

President W. H. Breithaupt 

Vice-President Rev. Theo. Spetz, C.R. 

Secretary-Treasurer P. Fisher 

Local Vice-Presidents 

Gait • • James E. Kerr 

Waterloo Charles A. Boehm 

Rlmira O. H. Vogt 

St. Jacobs ■ E. Richmond 

New Hamburg A. R. G. Smith 

Members of the Council: C. H. Miills, M.P.P.; W. J. Motz, M.A.; 
Judge C. R. Manning, E. W. B. Snider. 


President's Address 

In the first place it is due that I thank the Society for 
continued re-election. To be placed in such position of re- 
sponsibility of the historical interests of the County of 
Waterloo is a distinction which by continued effort I hope 
to merit, but which, I feel, could be more fittingly conferred 
on various others. 

Recognition of our effort in grants from the Province, 
from the County and from the cities of Gait and Kitchener, 
as reported by the Secretary — to whose efficient work the 
Society's progress is so largely due — is a satisfaction. 

With the printing of the last Annual Report the Society 
issued a re-print of its first report, which had soon become 
exhausted and for which there was continued demand. In 
the re-print there are several emendations, notably that of 
the account of the first settlers, obtained personally from fhe 
late Rev. A. B. Sherk, who was authority on the early his- 
tory of the County. For this year the society will issue its 
fifth Annual Report, and it is thought fit that a complete in- 
dex to date, and catalogue of its museum be inserted. 

The Society's Roll of Honor, of men of Waterloo County 
who have gone forth at the call of their country and given 
their lives in the great war, has had large additions during 
the year, as will appear. We are continuing to collect photo- 
graphs and biographical data of these noble Canadians and 
find this a work of considerable difficulty. 

Various relief activities in connection with the war con- 
tinue unabated. The Kitchener Red Cross Society deserves 
special mention for its work, which was double that of the 
previous year. For the year ending Oct. 10, 1917, its total 
receipts were $18,816.34. 

The Freeport Tuberculosis Hospital has been converted 
into a Military Hospital. Captain A. D. Proctor, who has 
been Officer Commanding and Medical Superintendent since 
the change, kindly supplies information as follows, under 
date of November 15th : This hospital was taken over by 
the Military Hospitals Commission in November, 1916. The 
Military Hospitals Commission was created by Order in Coun- 
cil to provide accommodation — convalescent homes, hospitals, 
sanataria, etc. — for returned soldiers. The Commission pays 
all running expenses, but voluntary contributions of additional 
comforts are accepted in all hospitals. One hundred and seven 
patients have been admitted, three of whom have died, fifty- 
seven have been discharged and fifty remain. The Hospital 
proper has accommodation for thirty-four patients, the ad- 
ditional ones have been in tents during the summer. It is 
expected that two pavilions to hold ten men each will be 
erected for the men in tents. In addition to the Officer Com- 


manding. Captain Meikleham has been appointed disciplin- 
arian officer, during the past month. 

Worthy of mention, and typical of such war relief activity 
in the County in general, is the fact that the Waterloo County" 
Teachers' Association at its convention in Gait, in October, 
appointed a committee to collect potatoes for the Military 
Hospital and that as a result 425 bags of potatoes have been 
collected, besides $226.00 in cash. 

A number of noted men of the County have died during 
the year, among them two County officials, Ward Hamilton 
Bowlby, M.A., K.C.. Cro^n Attorney of Waterloo County 
for nearly fifty years, and Registrar John D. Moore; and 
the most prominent railway man of the County, Martin 
N. Todd, of Gait. Brief biographies will appear in the Soc- 
iety's Annual Report ; also an autobiography of a Wellesle> 
Township pioneer, still hale and active at the age of eighty- 
five, John G. Reiner, ardent Canadian, who was with the Baden 
revolutionists in 1849 and had to flee when the revolution 

As contribution to older and recent history I will here 
give something on 

Waterloo County Railway History. 

In the early days of Canadian railroading the Grand 
Trunk Railway and the Great Western Railway were the 
only larger lines ; the latter in fact but a short line on pre- 
sent day scale. Waterloo County was traversed by each 
of these lines practically at the beginning of their operation. 
A branch of the Great Western Railway, leaving the main 
line at Harrisburg, was opened to Gait on the 21st day of 
August, 1854, more than a year before the G. W. R. Toronto 
extension was opened, and antedating in Waterloo County, by 
more than two years, the Grand Trunk, which began operation 
through to Stratford on November 17th., 1856. 

The main line of the Grand Trunk Railway was for many 
years from Montreal to Sarnia.with an extension to Port- 
land, Me., the former St. Lawrence & Atlantic and Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence Railways. The main line of the Great Wes- 
tern Railway was from Suspension Bridge to Windsor with 
an extension from Hamilton to Toronto, and sundry branches 
of which the Gait branch was practically the first. 

The beginning of the Great Western Railway was by an 
act of the legislature of Upper Canada, in 1834, incorporating 
the London and Gore Railway Comipany, to run from London 
to Burlington Bay, at the head of Lake Ontario, and west- 
ward to the navigable waters of the Thames River and Lake 
Huron. With nothing done in the interval, the act was re- 
vived eleven years later, in 1845, and the name changed to The 
Great Western Railway Company, further amendment of the 
act being had in 1846. It took until 1853 to have the line 


ready for operation from the Niagara River via Hamilton to 
London. In January 1854 it was opened throngh to the De- 
troit River at Windsor. An act authorizing the Company "to 
make a branch railroad to the Town of Gait" was passed in 
1850, four years before this branch, 12 miles was built. 

An independent company, composed of Isaac Buchanan, of 
Hamilton, a noted merchant and man of large affairs of that 
day. and seventeen others, was incorporated in 1852 to build 
a line from Gait to Guelph, under the name of the Gait and 
Guelph Railway. Gait, Preston, Hespeler and Guelph sub- 
scribed liberally. Gait subscribed $62,500 in 1856 and by 
1866 paid the whole sum. The road was opened to Preston, 
November 28th., 1855, and to Guelph on the 28th day of 
September, 1857. The operation of the road was given over 
to the Great Western Railway Company. Difficulty in meet- 
ing expenses was at once encountered, deficits accumulated 
and by 1860 the operating company foreclosed a mortgage 
it had taken for advances made. Eventually the stock was 
forfeited, the Great Western Railway Company becoming 
the owner. The village of Preston had to pay in principal 
and interest about $53,000.00. How this burden of indebted- 
ness was finally liquidated is related in Klotz's History of 
Preston, appearing in this volume. 

An extension to give the enterprising County Town con- 
nection with the Great Western Railway, was a natural se- 
quence. The first Preston and Berlin Railway was built in 
1856 and 1857 as part of the Galt-Guelph Railway. The road 
was opened on November 2nd, 1857, and the occasion cele- 
brated by a grand banquet at Klein's Hotel, later Weaver's 
Hotel, which with its long and comfortable horseshed I well 
remember, oh Queen Street South, about where is now the 
Randall & Roos warehouse. Three months later a winter 
freshet undermined the two piers of the Grand River bridge, 
below Doon ; the bridge, consisting of three wooden Howe 
truss spans, failed, and operation of the road ceased. Thus 
for a few brief months, sixty years ago, Berlin, now Kitchener, 
had more direct rail connection to Hamilton and the south 
than it has had at any time since. In Berlin the terminus 
was at King St., alongside of the G. T. R., where now is the 
Boehmer coal yard. The intention was to extend to the G. T. 
R. station where the Company had purchased ground now 
occuped by the Hydro City Shoe Co., but nothing between 
this and King St. Local bylaws were passed, one in 1855 
and a later one in 1857, which was shortly afterward re- 
pealed, to take stock in the Company to the extent of $40,000. 
In 1858 an act was passed by the legisltaure of Upper Can- 
ada rectifying irregularity as to these bylaws. A final act 
regarding the Preston and Berlin Railway was passed in 
1863, authorizing its sale and exonerating Berlin from pay- 
ment on its sulbscriptions. on which nothing was at any time 
actually paid. The Preston section was never rebuilt. Of 


the bridge over the Grand River nothing remains but traces 
of its abutments where the embankments abruptly end on 
either side. The Speed River bridge was for some time 
used as a foot bridge, but has also long since disappeared. 
In 1865 the Grand Trunk Railway acquired what there was 
left of the road and used all that served for its Gait branch, 
in 1872. For some years prior to the latter date the road 
was operated to German Mills station, as a freight service, 
mainly for the flour mills there. 

Construction of the entire first main line of the Grand 
Trunk Railway, Montreal to Sarnia, took only about three 
years, rapid construction even on present day standards, 
1853 to 1856, and was practically carried on simultaneously 
throughout the whole distance. A short distance, Montreal 
to Brockville, was opened for traffic in 1855, all the rest in 
1856. The Toronto, Sarnia section, 172 miles, was let to 
Gzowski — later Sir Casimir Gzowski — MacPherson and Gait, 
as contractors for the whole, for the sum. of £1,376,000 
sterling,* Sub-contractors for the greater part of the distance 
through Waterloo County, from the Grand River bridge west- 
v^rard, were Jackson and Flower, the first local railroad build- 
ers. Mr. Jackson, and Mr. J. S. McDonald, who became ac- 
countant for the firm, set out from Montreal in August, 1853, 
travelled by steamboat to Hamilton and from there by stage. 
They at once organized a force and established their head- 
quarters here, living for a while at first at Butchart's "Queen's 
Arms" Hotel which stood on the site of the present City Hall. 
Completion of grading, sections of which were very heavy, 
took two years, until the fall of 1855. The bridge over the 
Grand River at Breslau was completed in 1856. By courtesy 
of the Grand Trunk Railway we have in our collection a 
copy of the original water color of this bridge. The high 
limestone piers have the peculiar ice breaker toe, considered 
necessary at that time. The wrought iron superstructure was 
brought from England. The two centre spans were the old 
style tubular girders. The superstructure was replaced by 
modern steel girders, to carry the greatly increased loading, 
in 1905. 

The contractor for the station buildings, freight sheds, 
etc., from Guelph westward was Marshall H. Farr, who came 
from Vermont. He was killed in the great Desjardins canal 
accident, at the entrance to Hamilton, March 12, 1857. His 
contracts were carried on and completed by his two nephews, 
George Randall and Shubel H. Randall, who also built the 
Great Western Railway station buildings at Preston. 

The Grand Trunk Railway was built on 5' 6" gauge, as 
was also the Great Western Railway. The latter had an 
additional rail giving 4' S}^" gauge for its through traffic be- 
tween the States of New York and Michigan. The battle of 

* R&iiways of C&n&da: J. M. and E. Trout, 1871. 


the gauges, as it was called, was long continued in England 
until finally Stephenson's 4' 8^" gauge survived, and this, 
for the advantage of uniformity more than for intrinsic 
merit, eventually became the standard guage throughout most 
of the world. The Grand Trunk Railway changed to standard 
gauge in 1872 and 1873 ; the change of the local section, Tor- 
onto to Stratford, was made on a Sunday, in October, 1872. 
Another detail of construction of the original Grand Trunk 
was the old U rail, practically a plate shaped to crosssection 
of a square topped hat, two vertical sides with horizontal 
flanges and top. This rail long survived on local sidings. 

For almost twenty years, up to 1875, wood burning loco- 
motives were used. This necessitated great stacks of wood 
at the stations. Locally more than half of the station yard 
space was so taken up. The site of the present freight house 
was taken up by a great wood shed, and this was only about 
one third of the whole. A steam saw and gang came around 
periodically to cut the four foot cordwood sticks in two, ready 
for the locomotive tender. Enormous quantities of the finest 
hardwoods, maple, beech and other, were thus consumed. 
The first coal burning engine, changed from wood burning, in 
the shops at Stratford, was put into service in 1873. * The 
change from wood to coal burning took several years. For 
1875 the Stratford record shows 4,197 tons of coal issued and 
16,436 cords of wood, this being the maximum wood con- 
sumption record for that station. It represents a pile of cord- 
wood 40 ft. wide, 20 ft. high and almost exactly half a mile 
long. After 1875 the use of wood dropped rapidly. The price 
of wood began at about $2.00, was $2.50 and finally $3.00 and 
over per cord. At Berlin Station about 6,000 to 7,000 cords 
per annum appear to have been purchased. Henry Brubacher 
was for many years wood buyer for the Grand Trunk here 
and in Breslau. During the 19 or more years of wood burn- 
ing probably over 120,000 cords were delivered at the Berlin 
Station. The price rose to $3.50 per cord about 1874. 

The Berlin-Gait branch of the Grand Trunk was opened 
in 1872. The Town of Gait considered it worth a money bonus 
of $25,000 besides station grounds, a part of Dickson Park, 
and right of -way to the junction, above Blair, of the old 
Preston-BerHn fine, purchased by the Grand Trunk as stated, 
to get a second railway Hne, in addition to the Great Western. 

A. flourishing cartage business, maintained between Berlin, 
now Kitchener, and Preston, gave Berlin the advantage of 
Great Western Railway freight connection, the company pay- 
ing regular allowance of ten cents per hundred weight for 
cartage. Passenger connection was maintained by a stage line, 
Waterloo to Preston. As early as 1860 we find announcement, 
in the Berlin Telegraph, of Great Western Railway trains 
from Preston and with it time table of Mr. Cornell's stages 
"leaving Potter's Hotel Berlin at 5 a.m. and 3 p.m. for Pres- 

* J. D. Barnett. 


ton" and also that Messrs. Cornell & Rogers' stage "connect- 
ing with afternoon stage from Preston leaves Berlin for Glen- 
allen and other places in the west, passing through Waterloo, 
St. Jacobs and Elmira." Potter's Hotel and stables occupied 
the site of the present Walper House, and Star Theatre, part- 
ly. The proprietor was the father of our fellow citizen, Mr. 
George Potter. 

In 1882 the Great Western Railway was incorporated 
with the Grand Trunk, this taking effect on August 12th that 
year. It became the main through traffic line, especially in 
passenger service, west of Toronto. The Gait branch, with 
transfer there from one station across the river to the other, 
became the passenger connection southward from here. 

Extension northward, as far as Waterloo, also came in 
1882, the line being extended across King St. as a siding to 
Snider's mill. Nine years later, Dec. 9th., 1891, the line was 
opened for passenger traffic to St. Jacobs and Elmira. Mr. J. 
S. ElHs, now of Kitchener, was the first Grand Trunk agent 
at St. Jacobs. From then on regular operation was back and 
forth from Gait to Elmira, and the whole known as the Gait-' 
Elmira branch. 

The present G. T. R. passenger station at Kitchener was 
built in 1897. The original station building, also of brick, and 
of a standard regular pattern of architecture adopted for many 
of the old G. T. R. stations, was less than half the size of the 
present one, and was further west, extending partly over the 
line of the easterly limit of Weber St. 

The Toronto-Detroit line of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
extends east and west through Dumfries Township with prin- 
cipal stations at Gait and Ayr. It was built, as the Credit 
Valley Railway, through the Gait district in 1879, the bridge 
over the Grand River at Gait being built the same year. In 
October of that year the Credit Valley Railway began oper- 
ation into Waterloo County in the way of a freight service be- 
tween Ayr and IngersoU. At noon on December 18th., 1879, 
the first locomotive passed over the bridge at Gait. In the 
afternoon of the same day the official test of the bridge was 
made with three locomotives, and a special train came up 
from Toronto with directors and officials of the railway. In 
January, 1880, the line was in full operation. In connection 
with the Canadian Pacific Railway there may be mentioned 
that its Chief Engineer for several years, until he resigned in 
1906, was a Waterloo County man, W. F. Tye, born at Hays- 
ville and educated at Ottawa University and at the School of 
Practical Science, Toronto University. 

For over two and a half years, until amalgamation of the 
Great Western Railway with the Grand Trunk, as stated, Gait 
had three railways : the Great Western, Harrisburg-Southamp- 
ton branch ; the Grand Trunk by branch from Berlin and the 
main line of the Credit Valley Railway; and made much of 
this as advantage for local manufacturing and general trade. 


Gait still has the best railway facilities for passenger travel 
of any place in the county, while Kitchener is better equipped 
with freight sidings. 

The first secondary railroad in the County, the present 
Kitchener and Waterloo electric street railway, was opened as 
a horse car line in 1888, on a twenty year charter and franchise 
obtained two years before. The principal owners lived in New 
York, and sent up their representative, Thomas M. Burt, who 
built the original line and was its manager. The regular ser- 
vice was a one horse car from each end every half hour. 
Closed, omnibus style, sleighs were provided for winter service. 
The car barn and stables were in Waterloo, a little above 
Cedar Street on the east side of King Street, at the end of 
the line. In Berlin the line ended at Scott Street, and there 
was a branch line to the old Grand Trunk station, along the 
present route. In 1895 the line was changed to electric trac- 
tion by the late Ezra Carl Breithaupt, who, with associates, 
shortly after acquired a large interest in the Company and be- 
came its president and manager. (E. C. Breithaupt met his 
death, January 27th., 1897, from injuries sustained a few hours 
before in an explosion at the old Berlin Gas Works, of which 
also he was« manager.) Power was supplied from the electric 
plant of the Berlin Gas Co., until after the town acquired this 
property, June 1, 1903, and made radical changes in the elec- 
tric plant when the Street Railway Company found it exped- 
ient to build a new power house, which it did on the corner of 
King and Albert streets to where its line had been extended 
from Scott St. in 1902, and where it already had a car house. 
The Waterloo line was taken over by the Town of Berlin on 
the first day of May, 1907. The extension in Waterloo to 
Church Street and the "Y" into that street were built in 1909. 
In the same year the road was double tracked to the Waterloo 
boundary. Since Oct. 1910 the line is operated by Hydro Elec- 
tric power. It is interesting to note that local consumption, 
beginning with 106 h.p. in 1910, is now 4,280 h.p. 

The Bridgeport line, chartered as the Berlin and Bridge- 
port Electric Street Railway, was opened for regular traffic as 
far as the new beet sugar plant, then building, on July 14th., 
1902, and to Bridgeport shortly after. It was leased to and 
operated with the Waterloo line until the latter was taken 
over by the town as stated. By act of the Ontario legislature, 
in 1912, the name was changed to the Berlin & Northern 
Railroad and pow^er of extension granted. 

The first electric railway in Waterloo County was the 
Gait, Preston & Hespeler Railway, which began operation be- 
tween Gait and Preston on July 21st., 1894. The original pro- 
moters were Thomas Todd, who became president, Hugh Mc- 
Culloch, David Spiers, Jolin D. Moore, J. G. Cox and W. H. 
Lutz. Extension to Hespeler was in 1896. The Preston and 
Berlin end was built in 1902 and 1903, the Freeport bridge 
over the Grand River being built in the latter year, by John 


Patterson and associates of Hamilton. In January 1904 the 
Preston and Berlin Railway was taken over by and became 
an extension of the Gait, Preston & Hespeler Railway and was 
at once operated. Extension and operation to Waterloo fol- 
lowed in 1905. The present Preston station was built in 
1905, the Kitchener freight station in 1912. 

The advantage to Kitchener and Waterloo, as also to 
Preston and Hespeler, of the G. P. & H. Ry., is that it gives, 
besides County traffic facility, passenger and freight connec- 
tion with the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Gait. An addition- 
al advantage dates from the opening of the Lake Erie & Nor- 
thern Ry. (electric) to Gait, which occurred in February, 
1916, replacing, from Brantford to Gait, the old Grand Valley 
electric railway, which had been in operation to Gait for 
twelve years, as a light passenger line only. 

In closing it will be of interest to give breifly the careers 
of two of the first local railway builders, as they established 
themselves here and took active part in local progress. 

Henry Fletcher Joseph Jackson, who came of a noted 
and wealthy family of clockmakers and watchmakers, was 


born in Clerkenwell, London, England, November 17, 1820. 
After home schooling he was sent at the age of 14, to Geneva, 
Switzerland, where he spent three years, largely in the study 
of the French language and literature. Eventually he decided 
to seek his fortune in Canada, and came to Montreal in 1844, 


w^here he was first with Henry Holland, in commission and 
general mercantile business. He went into railroading and 
in time became general agent of the St. Lawrence and At- 
lantic Railroad, being that part of the present Portland line 
of the Grand Trunk Ry. extending from opposite Montreal on 
the south side of the St. Lawrence river to the Vermont 
boundary. He left Montreal to take part in the railway 
construction contract in Waterloo County, as spoken of. Mr. 
Jackson acquired the block of land bounded by Water, Fran- 
cis and King Streets, much of which had been used by the 
contractors for stables and storage of materials, and here, in 
spacious grounds, built his residence, still standing, near the 
x:orner of King and Water Streets. Tremaine's large map of 
the County, of 1861, hanging on our walls, has a marginal 
picture of the house as it was. He was first president of the 
Economical Mutual Fire Insurance Company, was president 
of the Berlin Tobacco company, and was in various other 
business ventures. He always manifested much interest in 
local schools, particularly in the old Central school. In 1876 
Mr. Jackson returned to Montreal being given a public dinner 
on the occasion of his leaving here. He sold his residence in 
Berlin to Peter Becker, of Toronto, retaining however other 
property. Three years later the family moved to Brockville, 
where he died in 1895. In his later years Mr. Jackson was 
auditor of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of Canada. 
Isabella Murphy, of Montreal, married H. F. J. Jackson 
in 1849. They had seven children of whom four survive, 
three daughters, living in Kitchener, and a son in Chicago. 
Another son, Samuel W. Jackson, well remembered here, 
attorney and counselor at law, president of the Chicago Law 
Society, died in Chicago last year. Mrs. Jackson died in 
Brockville in 1890. 

George Randall was born in Chesterfield, New Hamp- 
shire, April 16th., 1832. He came to Canada in 1854 with 
his uncle. Marshall H. Farr, who had contracts for station 
buildings from Guelph westward on the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way and also some for the Great Western Railway, including 
the Preston station buildings. On Mr. Farr's death, George 
Randall and his brother took over the contracts, as stated. 
After completion of the railroad contracts Shubel H. Randall 
remained here for some years, removed in 1873 to Bellows 
Falls, Vermont, where he was in the hardware business and 
then retired. George Randall engaged in various kinds of 
manufacturing, had part in the woolen mills in Waterloo 
and also for a time in the distillery, etc. In 1883 he estab- 
lished with Mr. William Roos, his brother-in-law, the whole- 
sale grocery firm of Randall and Roos, which began business 
in the premises now known as Nos. 9 and 11 Queen St., 
North, Kitchener, and moved in 1898 to its present location 
on Queen St. South. He was a director in the Waterloo 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company for thirty-three years, from 


1875 on and president of this company from 1890 until the 
time of his death. Mr. Randall was married at Preston 
April 10, 1855, to Caroline Roos. In 1860 the place known as 
Spring Valley near Berlin became his home which he re- 
tained until he moved to Waterloo in 1873, to the house and 
large grounds now the property of the Mutual Life Insurance 


Company of Canada, the house having been on the 'site of 
the main building of the Insurance Co. He died December 
23rd, 1908. Mrs. Randall died January 27, 1913. A son and 
two daughters live in Toronto. 

Another former resident to be mentioned here is Joseph 
Hobson,* who became identified with the Great Western 
Railway and later with the Grand Trunk Railway. Mr. Hob- 
son was born in the township of Guelph, in March, 1834. 
In 1855 he came to Berlin, Canada West, as it was then ; 
was at first assistant to then in partnership with the late M. 
C. Scofield, Provincial Land-Surveyor, and remained here for 
ten years. The card of Scofield and Hobson appears in the 
"Berlin Chronicle" from 1856 on. In 1869-70 he was engineer 
on construction of the Wellington, Grey and Bruce Ry., the 
present G. T. R. line from Guelph northward. Eventually 
he became Chief Engineer of the Great Western Railway and 
later of the Grand Trunk Railway. His most important work 
was the building of the St. Clair Tunnel, for which 

*Died, at Hamilton, December IQth. 1917. 


achievement he was offered but refused knighthood. On his 
retirement from active service in 1907 Mr. Hobson returned 
to Hamilton. He has been in feeble health for some years. 
His early married life was here, in the house later known 
as the McPherson house, taken down two years ago to make 
room for the new Economical Insurance Company building 
on Queen Street, where were born several of his children, one 
of them. Robert Hobson, now president of the Steel Com- 
pany of Canada. The Waterloo Historical Society has in- 
teresting maps made by Mr. Hobson. His map of the Grange 
survey (lands bought in Berlin, when the Grand Trunk Rail- 
wa}"^ was built through, by Sheriff Grange of Wellington) in 
the local registry office, made in 1856, is still the most com- 
plete and carefully made map of its kind in that office. 


Sketch of the History of the 
Village of Preston* 

(Otto Klotz. 1886) 


At the commencement of the present century a number of 
Pennaylvania farmers of German descent left their homes to settle 
in Upper Canada, on fertile lands found on the Grand River. 

The first four-horse team, with a family of Pennsylvanians, 
which arrived in the present Township of Waterloo, came in 1800. 
It was driven by a young man possessed of considerable energy and 
a determination to accumulate property by honest industry. This 
was George iClemens, and he in course of time became not only on© 
of the wealthiest of the early settlers but also one of the most re- 
spected among his fellowmen. 

Soon after the arrival of the first contingent, a number of 
other families followed, several of which settled upon the lands 
now comprised within the limits of the Corporation of Preston. 
Among these were John Erb, Joseph Bechtel, Henry B. R. Bauman 
and Henry Brower. Of the first named, Mr. John Erb, it may justly 
be said that he laid the foundation of the Village of Preston, 
though it did not obtain the name till later. Mr. John Erb erected 
a grist-mill and a saw-mill on the place where now the Cambridge 

♦Published In Preston Progress, long out of print and unavailable. Now 
given from original manuscript, edited by J. E. Klotz and D. Forsyth, B.A. 


Mills stand. This grist-mill was of great importance to the early 
settlers of the Township of Waterloo, who before its erection had 
to travel long distances to procure flour. Of some of the first 
settlers it is reported that they travelled on horseback with a bag 
of wheat as far as Niagara to have it ground. If it is taken into 
consideration that it took George Clemens with his four-horse team 
three weeks to travel from Dundas to what is now the Village of 
Preston; that in order to get through the dreadful Beverly swamp 
they had frequently to take their wagon to pieces and carry these 
pieces and their luggage for long distances upon their backs till 
they landed upon some dry ground; one may imagine the time and 
hardship connected with procuring a bag of flour for those first 
settlers from Pennsylvania. 

In 1832 John Erb transferred his property in Preston to his 
two sons, John Erb, Jr., and Joseph Erb, the former receiving the 
southern, the latter the northern portion with the mill premises. 

Mr. Joseph Bechtel held the farm near the Orand River, 
generally known as Bechtel's farm. 'He was bishop among the 
Mennonites, of quiet disposition, and died at a ripe old age. His 
youngest son, Joseph Bechtel, Jr., inherited the farm but did not 
long retain it. 

•Mr. G-eorge B. R. Bauman owned a small farm and carried 
on a tannery for a number of years. After Mr. Bauman's death the 
premises came into possession of his son, Peter Bauman, a mill- 
wright and floriculturist. The tannery was discontinued and the 
buildings converted into a factory, in which Mr. Charles Wiseman 
manufactured mouldings of various patterns for a number of organ 
and piano builders. After the death of Mr. Peter Bauman the farm 
was sold to Mr. Christopher Kress. 

iMr. Henry Brower owned a farm at the east end of Preston, 
being the southern part of township lot number one; he is dead 
and the farm is now owned in subdivisions by different parties. 

Among the early settlers may be named Mr. Isaac Salyerds, of 
Irish descent. Brought up among Pennsylvanians, he married a 
daughter of John Erb and with her obtained considerable landed 
property. Isaac was a man of energy. He built a tavern (now 
owned by Mr. Alfred Thomson,) owned two large farms near Pres- 
ton and became the owner of a small tannery, near the Grand Rivf>r, 
built by one Andrew Smith. Mr. Salyerds erected a large store, 
built a tannery on those premises and carried on the business of 
tanning for a number of years. Owing to sickness and other causes 
his business declined; he discontinued the tannery and died in em- 
barrassed circumstances. Having neglected to make a will, his 
property went into the Court of Chancery where it remained for a 
number of years, until the greater portion of it had been consumed 
by law costs. The tannery premises were purchased by Henry 
Bernhardt who converted them into a brewery and added a number 
of buildings as they now stand. 

The period between 1826 and 1832 brought several families 
and individual persons from Europe who took up their abode upon 
lands now within the limits of Preston, purchasing small parcels 


from John Erb and other large land owners. Among these was an 
English bachelor; or, as rumor would have it, one who had abandon- 
ed his wife in England. Mr. ScoUick was a man of commanding ap- 
pearance, possessed of a liberal education. iHe wrote a bold plain 
hand, and employed his time as a surveyor of lands, and as a con- 
veyancer and Justice of the Peace. He thereby accumulated con- 
siderable means and was universally esteemed, so that his opinion 
on matters of dispute was almost always considered conclusive. Old 
Squire Scollick, as he was generally designated, gave the place its 
name by christening it Preston after his native home in England. 
He was once elected to represent the people in Parliament -and 
died at a ripe old age in 1839. It appeared that he held out hopes 
to quite a number of persons that he would remember them in his 
will, and at his funeral after his will was read it was rather amus- 
ing to see the many disappointed faces and to hear the many ex- 
pressions of surprise and even indignation on learning that all had 
been willed to his brother, an illiterate man, an old bachelor and a 
day laborer in the Township of Woolwich. Old Scollick was buried 
according to his directions in the rear of one of his houses on King 
Street and his brother, who died some years afterwards, lies buried 

Another of the old settlers was one Mr. Jacob Thoman, a tailor 
from Switzerland. He built two taverns and for a time did consider- 
able business. The place where his first tavern stood was purchased 
by George Roos who took it down and erected the present three- 
storey stone tavern. The moral character of Mr. Jacob Thomar, 
however, had many bl^emishes. 'He was despised by almost every- 
body and died a miserable death, after all his property had been 

A family of numerous descendants was that of Mr. Jacob 
Roos, from Alsace, a cooper, who worked in John Erb's mills and 
who acquired considerable property which descended to his sons, 
many of whom are still in our midst. 

Among the most prominent settlers who came here about 
1832 were Adam Ferrie, Jr., and Samuel Liebschuetz; the former 
a Scotchman and youngest son of the Hon. Adam Ferrie, of Mont- 
real, then head of a large wholesale house; the latter was a shrewd 
German Jew. Both started a store here and both did a thriving 
business. ' 

Mr. Adam Ferrie, Junior, commenced in the dwelling house 
of Jacob Roos, cooper, but soon built a new store and a large 
warehouse, at present owned by our worthy ex-Reeve Mr. William 
Schlueter, who converted the warehouse into that well known estab- 
lishment called "Business Corner," Mr. Liebschuetz erected the 
store now owned and occupied by Mr. Uttick the tobacconist. Mr. 
Liebschuetz's business increasing rapidly, he built another store 
combined with a tavern; but not finding sufficient room In Pres- 
ton for his energies and ambition, he traded his property in Preston 
against a mill property, now known as German Mills, but for many 
years known as Jowsburg, so named after its founder who was a 
Jew. This was the first grist-mill that was bought and enlarged 


with money earned in Preston. Liebschuetz by reason of some 
criminal act, as was supposed, fled the country and never returned. 

Adam Ferrie, junior, who had taken in Thomas H. McKenzie 
as a partner, did a very thriving business. Possessed of a liberal 
education, he was one of the most honorable and straightforward 
of business men, always ready to aid in improvements. He desired 
to enlarge his business by the erection of a grist-mill and for that 
purpose endeavored to procure the water privilege and lands near 
the Grand River, then owned by Mr. John Erb, junior; but all at- 
tempts to procure this land, though it was lying waste and remains 
a waste to the present day, proved futile. Th« means at the dis- 
posal of Mr. Adam Ferrie were considerable, while his father, who 
at that time was wealthy, encouraged the plans of his son, who 
upon seeing that he could neither with money nor persuasion pro- 
cure lands in Preston, looked elsewhere for the investment of the 
funds at his disposal. He selected an old saw-mill with a good 
water power about four miles from Preston; purchased the same, 
sold out his Preston store to Thomas H. McKenzie and left Preston, 
to the great regret of all reflecting men. The place he seleceted for 
his investments he named Doon. Here he built a substantial dam, 
a large grist-mill, saw-mill, distillery, store, dwelling house, tavern 
and a number of small dwellings for the men in his employ. Thus 
out of a wilderness he made a thriving village. This was the sec- 
ond grist-mill built with money at least partly earned in Preston. 
But unfortunately family difficulties obliged Adam Ferrie to leave 
Doon and to let his elder brother manage its affairs. The old 
stern father had decided upon the change and poor Adam, the 
younger, had to obey. He left Doon broken hearted, and among 
his last words were heard the expression: — "My brother will not 
be able to manage that business, it will go to miin. My father has 
greatly wronged me, but I have obeyed him to the last." He soon 
died of a broken heart, a premature death; the Doon property be- 
came involved, and the Ferrie Estate lost it. Young Adam's prop- 
hecy became fuMlled. 

Shortly after Ferrie and Liebschuetz had opened stores in Pres- 
ton, two young Germans who had been living in the United States. 
came to Preston and opened a store, in the premises first occupied 
by Liebschuetz. These two Germans were a Jew named Yost and 
Jacob Hespeler. They did a good business, but it appeared that 
Mr. Yost had committed some fraud in Philadelphia, was pursued, 
captured and taken to Hamilton jail to await his trial. Hespeler 
managed to make a compromise with Yost's creditors, upon re- 
ceiving an assignment of all Yost's interests in the store. A short 
time afterwards Hespeler built a large store and extended his busi- 
ness to a considerable extent; he had also built a distillery some 
time before. 

About this time, in 1836, Preston received a large addition 
to its population, by a number of German families from different 
parts of Germany. Village lots were taken up and everyone at- 
tempted to build. The carpenter helped the mason, and he in turn 
helped the carpenter to erect a house. Both bought materials and 


store goods on credit and the inevitable consequence was that only 
few houses were finished, and none paid for. A great many had to be 
abandoned while those who remained struggled for many years to 
pay off their indebtedness. 

In 1837 and up to 1841 the number of inhabitants of Preston 
was continually increased by new comers, principally from Ger- 
many; but occasionally a few other nationalities made Preston 
their abode. 

The two brothers, John and Frederick Guggisberg who had ar- 
rived some years previous to 1836 firmly established themselves 
here. The elder John, built a tavern known as the "Black Bear"; 
the younger Frederick erected in 1841 a chair factory, which he 
gradually increased until it reached its present extensive dimensions. 

Among those who came here in 1837 was Mr. Otto Klotz. He 
purchased a property abandoned by one Richard Haste, who had 
erected a small brewery; and for several years Mr. Klotz carried 
on the brewery. In 1839 he partly erected the premises for many 
years known as Klotz's Hotel, and later continued to increase the 
same to their present dimensions. In 1862 Mr. Klotz erected a 
starch factory, which however proved to be a losing undertaking 
and it was therefore discontinued. The premises and machinery 
were subsequently leased for manufacturing purposes, but they 
took fire in July 1873 and were completely gutted. Whether the 
fire was the act of an incendiary or was caused by spontaneous com- 
bustion was never ascertained; the heavy loss which he thereby sus- 
tained was fully ascertained. Four years ago iMr. Klotz leased his 
hotel premises, the name being changed to "Central Hotel," and 
retired into private lifo, continuing only his office as Division Court 
Clerk, conveyancer and other kindred offices, together with a number 
of offices of trust without fee or emolument. 

An enterprising young German came here about 1838 by nanno 
of Mr. Jacob Beck. He had invented a peculiar kind of water-wheel, 
small in size but of great power, and its use in several small water 
powers gave young Mr. Beck quite a reputation. He commenced a 
small foundry near a saw-mill in the village of New Hope, and finding 
considerable encouragement came to Preston, where he erected a 
foundry upon the premises now owned by Peter E. Shantz in Foun- 
tain Street. Business increased rapidly, but unfortunately a fire 
broke out which completely destroyed his flourishing foundry and 
Mr. Beck, no insurance having been effected, stood once more poor 
and penniless; but, thanks to the liberality of his neighbors in and 
around Preston, a subscription was raised, men turned out to help 
with work and material and in a short time after the fire, Mr. Beck 
was again in possession of a foundry of considerably larger dimen- 
sions than the one destroyed by fire. He did an excellent business, 
and had men selling his stoves and other wares over a large part of 
Western Ontario. His means increased at a rapid rate, and he enlarg- 
ed his premises according to the wants of his business. Some years 
later he took in as partners two of the young men in his employ, 
viz: John Clare and Valentine Wahn, and the foundry business con- 
tinued to prosper for several years. Mr. Beck had in the meantime 

arranged with Mr. Robert Hunt of the Woolen Mills to Improve his 
water power by hightening the dam and digging a canal from the 
dam alongside the Speed River. This canal is still in existence ex- 
cept a small portion of its terminus which has recently been closed. 
Mr. Beck for the construction of the said canal obtained the privilege 
of erecting a saw-mill upon Mr. Hunt's premises. This saw-mill Mr. 
Beck carried on for some time but seeing that a grand scheme that 
he hand in mind could not be carried out, he sold his sawmill to 
Messrs. Hunt & Elliott. This grand scheme was nothing less than 
extending the said canal, crossing King Street and Queen Street and 
erecting along the canal a number of factories and mills. The pro- 
prietor of the land positively refused to grant permission to construct 
such a canal and Mr. Beck was forced to abandon his cherished 
plan of making Preston a great manufacturing place, such as the 
Town of Gait is at the present day. Mr. Beck, notwithstanding the 
good business done in his foundry, became displeased with Preston. 
The partnership of Beck, Clare & Wahn was abruptly dissolved, 
the business closed and the affairs of the firm wound up. Each partner 
obtained his proper share of the assets, which were largely in excess 
of the liabilities, Mr. Clare a store and other property and Jacob 
Beck a large sum of money. He went in search of a mill property 
which he found in Wilmot. There he erected mills, foundry and 
other industries, and founded a village which he named Baden. The 
grist-mill built by him was the third grist-mill built with money 
earned in Preston. 

Mr. Jacob Hespeler who has already been mentioned, tried in 
1839 to procure from John Erb the mill site near the Grand River, 
which Mr. Adam Ferrie, Jr., had vainly attemped to purchase. Mr. 
Hespeler succeeded in purchasing the same from Mr. Erb, whose 
wife however refused to sign the deed unless certain stipulations 
were entered. To these 'Mr. Hespeler objected and resolved not to 
build at all on that site. He purchased other lands instead and 
erected a store, grist-mill and a stone distillery on the north side 
of King Street, where business was carried on for several years, 
but finding the power and space of ground inadequate for his ideas 
and means, and himself hampered by the shortsightedness of certain 
people, he resolved to leave Preston. In 1845 he bought a valuable 
water privilege in the Village of New Hope owned by one Abraham 
Clemens and soon commenced to build up, in grand style, the plac>? 
now known as the Village of Hespeler. The grist-mill and premises 
erected by Mr. Hespeler was the fourth grist-mill built with money 
earned in Preston. 

The name of the person who was the real founder of the largest 
and to the inhabitants of Preston the most important establishment 
has so far been mentioned only incidentally, but since he well de- 
serves special mention, a brief review of his achievements will no 
doubt prove interesting. The name of this party is Mr. Robert Hunt, 
a quiet, unassuming man, benevolent in disposition, closely attend- 
ing to his business and possessed of superior tact and business quali- 
ties. It was about the year 1845 that Mr. Hunt came to Pretson. 
The water privilege now known as that of the Preston Woolen 


Mills was acquired by purchase In 1832 by one Charles Wlffler, a 
German blacksmith, who conceived the idea of starting a wool 
carding shop, but being unable to carry out that idea, he sold the 
premises, in 1842, to one Hiram Kinsman, who built a frame two 
story building in which he carried on wool carding for the farmers 
in the vicinity. Woolen mills, as we know them, were unknown 
here in those early days. The farmer brought his wool to the card- 
ing mill, had it carded, the carder deducting a usual percentage of 
the wool for his work, and the farmer took home his carded wool. 
His wife and daughters spun it into yarn and then this yarn was 
woven into homespun by the weaver who wove by hand loom, the 
cotton warp being bought in the stores. Mr. Robert Hunt, upon see- 
ing the water power and premises, at once discovered a mine of 
wealth latent there which only required energy, tact and means to 


develop. He purchased the premises from Mr, Kinsman in 1845, 
and set to work with that earnestness, perseverance and forethought 
which were his peculiar characteristics. The old frame building 
proved too small, a stone factory was erected and to this were 
gradually additions and numerous outer buildings. Mr. Hunt's 
weath increased with the increase of his premises. A most dis- 
astrous fire consumed the whole interior of the main building, but 
phoenix-like there soon arose from its ashes a large building, filled 
with the most improved machinery. In 1855 Mr. Andrew Elliott 
of Gait became a partner of Mr. Hunt and the premises and busi- 
ness were considerably enlarged. After some years, however, Mr. 


Robert Hunt retired from business, contemplating to spend tlie re- 
mainder of his days in rest and ease, his sons becoming partners 
with Mr. Elliott. Another disastrous fire destroyed the main build- 
ing and its machinery, and as on the former occasion the premises 
were immediately rebuilt and refurnished with machinery. The 
premises changed owners several times until they came into the 
possession of Messrs. Robinson, Howell & Co., who have mor© than 
trebled the capacity of the same and with their superior skill, busi- 
ness ability and means have made the Preston Woolen Mills one 
of the finest and largest in the country and a great benefit to 

t^z^jjs^m-^wf'^'WMr^^^'f'^'j' - «■ ;'^':t* 

T , f~»j' ^ j^Tr»ff»v /^ 



The grist-mill which became the property of John Erb's son 
Joseph in 1832 was considerably enlarged by the latter, who also 
added a distillery, a store and other premises. Mr. Joseph Erb 
took as a partmer Mr. Adam L. Argo and they carried on a milling, 
distilling and store business, under the firm name of Erb & Argo, 
for a number of years. Mr. Argo duly retired from the firm and 
Mr. Walter Gowinlock became the partner of Mr. Joseph Erb. Mr. 
Joseph Erb's son, Abram C. Erb, after still another change, became 
a partner and the firm Erb & Son. Some years later Mr. Joseph 
Erb retired, giving the business over to his four sons; Abraham A. 
Erb, Cyrus Erb, Joseph I. Erb and Isreal K. Erb, who for some 
years continued under the firm name of Erb Brothers. They con- 
siderably enlarged the business premises, built a substantial store 
and a dam across the River iSpeed, but unfortunately success did 
not crown their efforts. They experienced great losses In their 
milling and distilliag operations and In consequence thereof dis- 
continued their business and the property was sold to different 



The purchasers of the mill were Messrs. Samuel J. Cherry and 
John Cherry who put Into it the latest improvements in machinery 
and did a very lucrative business. John Cherry has since been 
bought out by his borther Samuel. 

Old Mr. Joseph Erb lived to a' ripe old age, universally respect- 
ed and esteemed as an upright, honest and benevolent man. Peace 
be to his ashes. His elder brother, John Elrb, died several years 
before, his wife soon following him to her last place of rest. 

One who will soon be classed among the old settlers of Preston 
is Christopher Kress, who by his energy and pluck has accumulated 
considerable property and who has greatly aided in giving Preston a 
good name as a desirable place of resort for the cure of rheumatisiu 
and kindred diseases, through its mineral baths. 

The mineral springs were struck by one Peter Erb while boring 
for salt in 1838, which he never obtained. He placed no value in 
the sulphur water he had so struck. After abandoning baring, 
the water of the spring was employed for driving an overshot 
wheel of a wagon making shop, occupied by one Daniel Hagey, until 
Mr. Samuel Cornell obtained from Mr. Joseph Erb suflftcient land 
near the spring to erect an hotel. Mr. Cornell with great energy 
built suitable premises and a bath house with boiler to enable him 
to furnish hot and cold baths. His undertaking proved successful 
but death terminated his career. The property was sold and 
Christopher Kress became its owner. He greatly enlarged, im- 
proved and ornamented it and the invalids who have sought and 
obtained relief at the Preston mineral baths count by the hundreds. 

Another household name in Preston is that of Mr. John Clare 
who for many years carried on the stove foundry and at the 
same time filled the position of councillor and reeve of the vil- 
lage. The business is now carried on by his two sons George A. 
Clare and Frederick Clare, who Aave recently greatly enlarged 
the plant in order to make its capacity equal to the increase of their 
large business, carried on under the firm of Clare Brothers & Co., 
manufacturers of furnaces, stoves and various other articles. Their 
newly erected three-story buildings are a credit to the owners and 
an ornament to Preston. The senior member of the firm, Mr. George 
Clare, fills the responsible and honorable office of reeve of the vil- 

Aid to Manufacturers 

In 1864 the municipal council passed a bylaw, which was ap- 
proved by the ratepayers, exempting from taxation for ten years 
all buildings and machinery for manufacturing erected or put up 
during that period provided the power used was not less than ten 
nominal horse power, and that no higher assessment than the val- 
uation for 1863 be made upon existing manufacturing establish- 
ments. This bylaw was subsequently renewed for an additional 
ten years. 

In 1875 the municipal council passed two bonus bylaws which 
were also approved by the ratepayers; the one bylaw granted a 
bonus of $5,000 to Messrs. Detweiler and Shantz for the erection 


of shops for the manufacture of agricultural implements, the other 
a bonus of $6,000 to Messrs. W. D. Hepburn and Company for the 
erection of a factory for the manufacture of boots and shoes. In 
3 886 the municipal council passed a third bonus bylaw, which was 
also approved by the ratepayers, granting a loan of $5,000 with- 
out interest for ten years to Messrs. W. Stahlschmidt and Company. 

.Messrs. Detweiler and Shantz purchased the old foundry of 
Valentine Wahn, enlarged the same and commenced their business, 
which succeeded admirably. Mr. Detweiler later retired from the 
firm, Mr. Shantz continuing the business alone. He has recently 
greatly enlarged the premises and is doing an extensive business in 
agricultural implements. 

Messrs. W.*D. Hepburn & Co. erected a factory and conducted 
therein the manufacture of boots and shoes, employing a consider- 
able number of workmen. It is however, to be regretted that they 
intend leaving Preston, having agreed to remove to Ingersoll upon 
being paid a large bonus by that town. The third firm aided by a 
bonus, though not by absolute grant of money, but only by a loan 
which they are bound to repay after a period of years without 
interest, is Messrs. W. Stahlschmidt and Co., manufacturers af 
oflSce, chair and lodge furniture. This business was started by 
Mr. William Stahlschmidt several years ago, while he was prin- 
cipal of the Preston school. Mr. S. had made various improvements 
in school desks for pupils and arranged for the manufacture of the 
same, receiving a certain profit upon the sale thereof. After 
giving up the profession of teacher, Mr. S. commenced manufacturing 
on his own account. The superiority of his articles soon secured 
large sales and the business consequently increased so rapidly that 
he not only sold in Ontario, but also in other provinces of the 
Dominion. In November 1885 he took in as a partner Mr. Jacob 
E. Klotz, who was possessed of means and business abilities, and 
with whom the firm of W. Stahlschmidt & Co. was formed. The 
firm has during the fall of 1886 erected a large three-story stone 
building, supplied with the best improved machinery. They sent 
a large number of their school desks and office desks to the Col- 
onial exhibition at London, England, Mr. Klotz personally at- 
tending to the same there. The result of this enterprise is already 
experienced by sales of a number of their desks which are beine 
ser.t to various parts of the globe, including, besides England and 
Geriaany, North Africa, South America and Australia. To the 
superior ability of managing the various branches in this manufac- 
turing establishment which Mr. Stahlschmidt has shown to possess, 
and the valuable assistance he receives from his excellent foreman, 
Mr. Jacob Mickler, is to be attributed the great success which the 
enterprise has shown in so short a period. 

Th« Preston Railway Debt 

In 1852 an act was passed whereby the Gait and Guelph 
Raiway was incorporated. 

The directors of that company made an agreement with the 
Canadian directors of the Great Western Railway Co., whereby 


the Oreat Western Railway Co., upon the building of the Gait aud 
Ouelph Railway by the directors thereof, was to assume that rail- 
way and all liabilities, work it and pay each stockholder of stock 
in the same six per cent, upon the stock subscribed and paid. This 
agreement was used as a great incentive to subscribe stock and 
accordingly not only individuals but also several municipalities 
were induced to subscribe stock. The municipalities were: — 

Town of Guelph $ 70,000.00 

Township of Guelph . 20,000.00 

City of Hamilton 40,000.00 

Village of Preston. .' 40,000.00 

Bona fide Private Stock. 17,000.42 

Total Stock $187,000.42 

There was also some bogus stock which was subsequently can- 
celled. The bylaw passed by the municipal council of Preston wafc 
sanctioned by the ratepayers with an overwhelming majority, the 
few voices raised against its passage, though forcible in argument 
and true in every respect as future events demonstrated amply and 
fully, were drowned by the vociferous shouting of the multitude 
which had been seduced by the leaders of the movement. The bylaw 
was sanctioned on the 20th day of December, 1853, and came into 
force the next day. By it the Corporation of Preston was authorized 
to subscribe stock in the Gait and Guelph Railway Company for 
four hundred shares at twenty-five pounds, one hundred dollars a 
share, and to issue debentures for the same, to be redeemed in 
twenty years from date of bylaw. It was provided in the bylaw 
that a sinking fund be formed and that sufficient money be raised 
annually by taxation for such sinking fund and for the annual 
Interest on the debentures. As the annual value of the amount of 
rateable property in Preston in 1852, was ascertained to be $13,- 
862.60, the rate required to be raised for the payment of interest 
and the creation of a sinking fund was thirty-four cents on the dol 
lar and the amount to be raised annually till 1873, by a population 
of 1540, was $4,400. Soon after the said stock was subscribed, 
with the assurance that it never needed to be paid, as the Great 
Western was to assume all the liabilities as soon as the G. G. Rail- 
way would be built, the Managing Director of the G. W. R. R., Mr. 
C. J. Brydges, went to England and took with him for confirmation 
the said agreement. It was said here that suet confirmation was 
a mere matter of form and that there was no doubt of it being 
obtained. But the English Board of Directors of the G. W. R. 
R. took a different view; they condemned the act of the Canadian 
Directors and refused confirmation. When Mr. Brydges upon his 
return brought this sad news, the Directors of the G. G. R. R. 
contemplated to compel the G. W. R. R. and enforce the terms 
of said agreement, but unfortunately by some mere formality 
they were thrown out of court. The agreement had not the seal 


of the G. W. R. R. attached and since a corporation is recognized 
by its seal, this omission of attaching the seal gave the G. W. 
R. R. Co., in point of law, the right to disown the agreement. 

This regulation on the part of the G. W. R. R. Co. was a 
sad blow to the Directors of the G. G. R. Co., who had their own 
road partly completed and no funds to purchase rails with. 

Thereupon on the 2nd of October, 1885, a lengthy agreement 
was made between the G. G. R. R. Co., and the G. W. R. R. 
Co., whereby the latter agreed to equip and work the road for 
a period of years, keep an account of receipts and expenditures, 
pay over balance of receipts, if any, to the Board of Directors 
of the G. G. R. R. Co., and bear themselves the loss in case of an 
adverse balance. 

The G. W. R. R. Co., however, instead of keeping such ac- 
count in the true spirit of justice and equity, kept no separate ac- 
count of the G. G. R. R. Co. at all, but charged all receipts from 
the main line and the branch line in one account and all the 
expenditure upon the main line and the branch line in another 
account. Then in making out th-e half yearly statement for the 
G. G. R. R. Co. they charged the G. G. R. R. Co. its share per 
mile of the whole expenditure, including all the great losses of 
accidents on the main line, notwithstanding that the branch line only 
ran one train to at least six trains on the main line, while in making 
out that statement they only credited the G. G. R. R. for all 
freight shipped thereon for the actual miles on that branch without 
in any way accounting for the profit made by way of freight paid by 
shippers upon goods sent from the several stations on the branch 
line and also over the main line. 

Against this inequitable mode of charging and crediting, ob- 
jection was raised and the matter was submitted to the Court of 
Chancery, which Court ordered the G. W. R. R. Co. to render an 
account in accordance with the principles af justice and equity 
and as contended for on the part of the G. G. R. R. Co. 
Unfortunately however the only parties who at the meetings of 
the Board of Directors of the G. G. R. R. Co. strongly urged the 
final prosecution of that order of Court were the representatives 
of Preston, while the other parties composing the Board were either 
under direct obligation to the G. W. R, R. Co., for favors received, 
or were more or less indifferent upon the subject. The consequence 
was that further proceedings were stayed, and a compromise 
made between the G. W. R. R. Co. and the G. G. R. R. Co. 
whereby the latter gave up to the former the whole railway and all 
its privileges and the former assumed the working and managing 
of the road; thus Preston lost Its claim. Preston had 

not, nor had any other of the municipalities, raised a sinking fund 
to redeem the debentures as they matured. Of the debentures issued 
several had been redeemed but the unredeemed portion was still 
so large that there appeared no alternative other than the issue 
of new debentures to redeem the railway debentures. The de- 
bentures redemmed were paid partly with Clergy Reserve Fund 
money, partly only by direct taxation money, viz: — 


Clergy Reserve Fund Money, 40 shares, 

$4,000 paid thereof . . $ 3,336,40 

Tax Money bought by Council, 16 shares 

$X,600 . . . . . i. ... 1,322.69 

Tax Money bought by Erb & Klotz, 72 

shares, |7,200 paid therefor 5,523.62 

128 shares, $12,800 paid therefor $10,182.71 

Leaving unpaid 272 shares at $100, $27,200 besides Interest. 
The shares or debentures bought by Abram A. Erb and Otto 
Klotz were those held by the G. W. R. R. Co. and which the 
Court of Chancery had ordered to be sold. They were adver- 
tised for sale by public auction, and Messrs. Erb & Klotz were 
deputed by the Preston council to attend the auction with a view 
to purchase those debentures; they succeeded in their mission 
by managing to procure those debentures amounting to $7,200 
principal with interest due, $216, a, total of $7,216, for a cash 
payment of $5,408, making a clear profit of $2,008. Mr. Klotz 
had previously arranged for the loan of $5,408 and the difr 
ference between the two sums shown, viz, $5,523.62 and $5,408 
Is for interest on that loan. While that heavy debt of $27,200 
with half yearly interest was hanging like a dark cloud over 
Preston, threatening almost certain ruin, a real Godsend came 
by way of a statute of Ontario. By this statute it was enacted 
that the municipalities which had Issued debentures in further- 
ance of railways in this province, and had not already borrowed 
money from the Municipal Loan Fund, should be entitled to re- 
ceive aid from that fund for the purpose of paying off such 
indebtedness, or certain portions thereof, according to a certain 
scale laid down in the statute. Accordingly every effort was 
made by the Preston council through certain parties specially ap- 
pointed for that purpose to advance and make known to the Gov- 
ernment of Ontario, the claim of the municipality of Preston 
upon the {Municipal Loan Fund by virtue of that statute. The 
result of several interviews with the Prime IMInlster of Ontario 
proved successful and the Municipality of Preston obtained In 
1873 from the Provincial Treasurer the sum of $22,254 for the 
redemption of railway debentures to that amount, and the de- 
bentures were redeemed accordingly and sent to the Provincial 
Treasurer for cancellation. This left the sum of $4,946 of de- 
bentures still unredeemed and these were paid off from money 
raised by direct taxation; so that by the time the debentures 
matured all were redeemed and Preston stood once more free 
of debt; after struggling for twenty years in endeavoring to 
keep Its head above water and avoid drowning with that mill- 
stone of $40,000 debt and Interest weighing upon Its body. 

The actual cash paid by the Municipality of Preston for this 
railway debt, besides Incidental expenses for lawyer's fees, bond 
costs, etc, was as follows: — 


Cash paid for debentures redeemed as above $10,182.71 
Interset paid on coupons during 20 years. ... 37,444.62 
Last debentures redeemed in 1873 4,946.00 


Really an appalling sum if it is taken into consideration 
that all Preston got for it was that a station was built in Pres- 
ton, while if Preston had not taken stock the railway would 
have passed Preston about one mile to the south, where a station 
mi£ht have been built for a mere trifle. 

Th« Grand River Bridge 

The inhabitants of Preston and especially the business men 
conceived the idea that a bridge across the Grand River at what 
was then called Bechtel's farm, now Oberholtz's farm, would be 
of great advantage to Preston, in as much as it was in a straight 
line from Strassburg to the junction of the Berlin road with that 
leading to the Bechtel farm. Accordingly a subscription was raised 
and with the money thus obtained a bridge was built across the 
Grand River; and the hill on the opposite side of that river partly 
lowered. This bridge proved of great benefit to Preston, as farmers 
of the west coming through Strassburg could reach Preston al- 
most as quickly as Doon, and sooner than they could reach Blair 
and Gait. 

Unfortunately freshets carried off the bridge and thereby one 
important road leading into Preston was blocked again by the 
unbridged view. The Municipal Council of Waterloo Township 
had for several years performed statute labor upon the approaches 
and even repaired the bridge itself. By this act that council had 
virtually in law assumed the bridge, and were accordingly bound 
to keep it in repair as also to rebuild it after being carried away. 
The Reeve was notified accordingly but the Township Council ap- 
peared unwilling to rebuild and notwithstanding that there could 
be no doubt about the responsibility of that council for such re- 
building neither the people of Preston nor its council in partic- 
ular could be induced to take legal procedure against the Town- 
ship Council. The matter remained unprosecuted, the bridge was 
never rebuilt, the road about two miles nearer to Strassburg than 
going there by way of Blair became virtually a blocked road and 
Preston lost one of the chief tributaries to its grist-mills and other 
business places. 


Our public schools were started in 1841 immediately after 
the Common School Act for Upper Canada was passed. The school 
officers now named trustees were then called commissioners, and 
these had similiar powers to the early trustees, engaging teachers, 
providing schools and funds. Among the first of these school 
commissioners was Otto Klotz, who has been a school officer ever 
since. Free schools were only permissible in former years, 


though in later years all schoalB became free by statute. If any 
school section desired to have a free school, the ratepayers had to 
petition the district council to that effect and upon ■ a favorable 
response to such petition the township collector had to collect 
in such school sections the requisite funds for paying the teacher's 
salary. The people of Preston availed themselves of that privilege 
and had a free school since 1845. On the first of January, 1852, 
Preston became an independent village, and the first act done by 
the newly elected Board of Trustees was to resolve upon a free 
school system. This system was however strongly assailed by 
some re-actionists and in October 1855 a rate-bill system of 50 
cents per quarter year was introduced. The friends of the free 
school system concluded that it would be prudent to let these 
shortsighted men have their way for some time as this would 
produce the best cure. This step proved a wise one, for only 
one year was required to prove the great folly of the rate-bill 
system and early In 1857 it was abolished and the free school 
system again established. Many of the rate-bill men became con- 
verts to the free school system and some of them strongly advo- 
cated the same. 

In 18512-1853 a new school house was built, to which in sub- 
sequent years several rooms have been added. The Preston school 
has always occupied a prominent position in this County and 
whenever there has been a competition, the pupils of the Preston 
schools have been among the foremost. Especially was this ex- 
emplified in 1853 and 1855 when the County Council granted a 
sum of money for prizes to be competed for by pupils in the 
county. The examiner chosen was John H. Sangster, Mathematical 
Master of the Normal School, the pupils were designated by num- 
bers only, printed on cards fastened to their breasts. At those 
two memorable public competitions three boys from Preston car- 
ried off about nine-tenths of all the prizes. These two boys were: 
John Lehman, John Mickleborough and John Idlngton, the former 
taking nearly all the first prizes. John Lehman became a carpen- 
ter, and later a contractor in Boston, where he lost his life by a 
fall. John Mickleborough has been for many years at the head 
of a large school in Cincinnati and John Idington Is a Queen's 
counsel In Stratford. Similar competitions in subsequent years 
have shown that the Preston school has maintained its prestige. 

From the school statistics since the incorporation of the 1st 
January, 1852, the following facts are gathered: — 

School population of children between 5 and 16 years of 
age, 1852, 314; 1856, 386; 1863, 380; 1870, 320; 1875, 358; 
1885, 335. Of these there were entered on the register as at- 
tending school 1852, 130; 1856, 182; 1863, 360; 1870, 301; 1875, 
372; 1885, 324. The number of teachers employed since 1852, 
was as follows: 1852, two; 1853 to 1870, three; from 1870 to 
1875, four; and from 1875 to 1886, five. Teachers salaries paid 
from 1852, $307.25; from 1853 to 1870 average per year $1,141.59, 
from 1870 to 1875 average per year $1,291,19 and from 1875 to 
1886 average per year $1,877.27. The estimated value of school 


property in June 1886 was: real estate $6,200, furniture $1,280, 
apparatus $150, library $100, making a total of $7,730. The av- 
erage cost for school salaries, repair fund and incidentals during 
the last three years, 1883, 1884 and 1885, is $2,455.33; the av- 
erage cost per pupil allowing for interest on school property is 
$9.79 per year for each pupil. As the School Act does not al- 
low trustees to charge non-resident pupils more than 50c per 
month for tuition, outsiders are taught for less than the rate- 
payers pay for the school expenses. 

The Fire Department 

This was called into existence in 1844 by a number of the 
inhabitants forming themselves into a Hook and Ladder Company, 
with Jacob Hespeler as captain and Otto Klotz as secretary. In 

1850 the inhabitants formed a regular fire company with Jacob 
Hespeler as captain and Otto Klotz as secretary-treasurer. An 
engine and other apparatus were procured and an engine house 
built by voluntary subscription; a constitution and bylaws drawn 
up and every member required to procure his own uniform. In 

1851 the Fire Company arranged with the German Oddfellows 
Lodge for the joint use of the upper ponion of the engine house, 
and the rent, received for several years in advance for the same, 
materially helped to pay off the cost of the building. Some years 
later a second fire company was formed having an engine of its 
own. The two companies were formed into a brigade with only 
one chief, but it cannot be said that they worked together very 
harmoniously, and the brigade only existed in name and not in 
reality. The independent and liberal spirit which for many years 
had been a characteristic of the first fire company gradually died 
out, as sufficient men could not be got to join the same and pro- 
cure their own uniform, and in 1872 it was resolved to dissolve 
the company, divide the funds and turn over the property con- 
sisting of the engine house and grounds, fire engine, hose, hook 
and ladder apparatus and other property to the Municipal Council 
upon condition that the Council form a nev/ fire company under 
its own immediate supervision. The Council having consented 
to these terms, the property was accordingly transferred to the 
Council. This terminated the independent fire company after an 
existence of twenty-two years, from 1850 to 1872. 

The first subscription list is dated 1st April, 1844, forming the 
Hbok and Ladder Company is yet in possession of Otto Klotz, the 
names are: Adam Ferrie, Jr., Jacob Hespeler, Isaac Salyerds, 
Hugh R. Folsom, Otto Klotz, Peter Knechtel, Daniel Halberstadt, 
Michael Stuempfie, George Roos, Ludwig Haberle, Wilhelm Jung, 
Frederick Bittman, Jacob Gaus, John Zing, George Uhrin, George 
Aspinleiter, Joseph Kohler, Ignatz Burnhardt, Joseph Zyrd, Carl 
Israel, Jacob Fuhry, Martin Thoman, Franz Ibach and Franz Letter 
of whom as near as can be ascertained there are only three sur- 
viving, viz: Hugh R. Folsom, Otto Klotz and George Roos. 


The Mechanics Institute 

Next In Importance to our excellent public school is the 
Mechanics Institute, providing useful instruction through its val- 
uable and large library to the mechanic, artisan, tradesman and 
farmer; to the student of literature, science and art, to the pro- 
fessional man and last but not least to the fair sex, be it bloom- 
ing maiden, the young housewife and mother, the aged matron; 
all may find instruction in dress making, mending, darning, cook- 
ing, baking, housekeeping, manners, rules of society, rearing and 
educating children and in making home the abode of peace and 
harmony, comfort and love. The Institute was established in 
October 1871, and the first sum requisite to enable it to draw 
the legislative grant was raised by subscription and voluntary 
contribution, after which it has managed to be self sustaining; and 
in recent years the equivalent to the legislative grant, being $200, 
has been furnished by the municipal council. 

During the existence of the Mechanics Institute it has drawn 
fourteen consecutive yearly legisltive grants of $400, amounting 
in the aggregate to $5,600. On the first day of May, 1876, being 
the end of the fiscal year, its library contained 3,933 volumes, be- 
ing 2,754 English and 1,179 German volumes, of a total value of 
$7,400.71, and the library is increased from year to year. The 
reading room is furnished with a large number of periodicals, 
magazines, reviews and newspapers, both in English and Ger- 
man, including a number of illustrated papers. 

Evening schools are provided for young men and young 
women who desire to avail themselves of this excellent mode of 
cheap, practical and useful instruction, and it depends entirely 
upon them whether such schools shall be continued or not as the 
Board of Directors will offer every facility in their power. The 
accommodations which the Mechanics Institute at present can offer 
to the public are certainly not in harmony with the great value 
of its library and reading room; and owing to the crowded state 
in which everything has to be kept at present for want of room, 
many valuable treasures are hidden from view and can hardly be 
found even after dUigent search. The Board of Directors have 
certainly done all in their power to make, with the limited local 
means at their disposal, the library one of the largest Mechanics 
Institute libraries in Ontario; and it now behooves the public to 
provide the necessary accommodation, so that all may have a 
chance of enjoying and profiting by the numerous and various 
treasures in our midst. Let us therefore hope that at no dis- 
tant day the taxpayers of Preston will manifest their liberality 
and at the same time their sense of duty by requiring' c reqi'°at 
ing the Municipal Council to raise the necessary funds tor cue er- 
ection of a substantial and suitable building for Mechanics In- 
stitute purposes, in which at the same time might be furnished a 
council chamt)er, so much needed in this municipality, since the 
present place wherein our municipal affairs are transacted never 
was or never can be made suitable Ifor those important matters. 



Officers and Men of Waterloo County who have made 
the Supreme Sacrifice for King and Country 



Pte. James C. Baird. 

Pte. Samuel Ball. 

Pte. John Barbour. 

Pte. Frederick Albert Barnett. 

Pte. G. S. Batters. 

Pte. Joseph Bell. 

Pte. John Blundell. 

Pte. J. E. Brigdon, 

Pte. Arthur Brown. 

Pte. K. C. Brown. 

Pte. Philip Brown. 

Pte. Edward Caines. 

Capt. George Walter Call. 

Lieut. John James Campbell. 

Pte. John Carpenter. 

Pte. John Carradice. 

L.-Corp. John Chalk. 

Pte. Thomas Clara. 

L.-Corp. John Clark. 

Pte. WilUam Clarke. 

Pte. C. Olay. 

Pte. William B. Couthard. 

Pte. K. Crichton. 

L.-Corp. Thomas Grosser. 

Pte. George Davis. 

Pte. Oliver Dedman. 

Pte. Harry Alexander Dingwall. 

Pte. Jack Douglas. 

Pte. Walter Davidson Dryien. 

Pte. Thomas Essery. 

Pte. Horace Fabrian. 

Pte. J. iM. Gibb. 

Pte. William Gray. 

Pte. Frederick Henry Grove. 

Pte. Arthur Hamm. 

Pte. Granville Hartley. 

Pte. Willam H. Hartley. 

Pte. Alfred Hatfield. 

Pte. Henry Hedges. 

Pte. Harold Lamb. 

Pte. Reginald Ernest Lanning. 

Sgt. Sydney J. Lee. 

Pte. Frank R. Lesemer. 

Pte. Percy Lovery, 

Gunner Edward A. Mann. 

Pte. Allan McDonald. 

L.-Corp. Henry Lome McFayden, 

Pte. William Cecil McGrath. 
Pte. iGeorge Miller. 
Gunner Ed. Morris. 
Pte. H. P. fMunn. 
Lieut. Richard Needs, 
Pte. Thomas Neill. 
Pte. John Nichols. 
Driver Alfred Lloyd Norman. 
Pte. Albert Edward Osborne. 
Pte. Leon Evert Parker. 
Pte. Cecil Pratt. 
Capt. H. H. Pratt. 
Pte. Stanley Rogers, 
Driver Herbert Smith. 
Sergt. L. S. Smith. 
Pte. John S. Stevens. 
Pte. Robert G. Stewart. 
Pte. Alexander Stubbs. 
Pte. John Stubbs. 
Pte. Edward Stumpf. 
Pte. J. E. Sullivan. 
Pte. Stanley Thomas. 
Pte. James Stanley Tones. 
Pte. Arthur Turner. 
Pte. James Frederick Ward. 
Pte. J. W. Warden, 
Pte. Charles Warner. 
Capt. Joseph Frank Welland. 
Pte. Arthur White. 
L.-Corp. John Yarrow. 


ROLL OF HONOUR : conUnuea 


Lieut. George J. Beaumont. Pte. J. P. MaoCallum. 

Major George Herbert Bowlby, Pte. Emanuel Peguegnat. 

M.D. Pte. Walter Conrad Schlerholz. 

Pte. George Bradley. Gunner Stanley W. Schreiter. 

Pte. Milton Lewis Capling. Lieut. Harry Snider. 

Aviation Gunner David Ward Pte. Ross Stewart. 

Pte. Franz Conrad. 
Pte. Harry Conrad Delion 
Pte. A. P^le. 
Pte. Arthur (Manuel Hall. 
Corp. C. H. Hoyland. 
L.-Corp. Peter Jansen. 
Pte. Henry John Looker. 

Lieut. Clifford Stokes. 
Pte. George Strub. 
Pte. H. Waddell. 
Pte. W. H. Walker. 
Lieut. Robert Washburn. 
Pte. James Willis. 
Pte. A. Zapfe. 


Pte. George Bradley. 

Pte. Robert Canning. 

Pte. Edward Callan. 

Pte. Charles Clark. 

Pte. Frank Cooper. 

Lieut. George P. Fink. 

Lieut. Lyell Corson Johnston. 

Pte. Henry George Haddaway. 

Corp. Joseph Hackett. 

Pte. Edward Hale. 

Pte. John Francis McConnell. 

Pte. Robert Gladstone Mcintosh. 

Pte. Robert Walter McMeekin. 

Pte. R. Middlemiss. 

Pte. Harry Newland. 

Pte. William J. Parker. 

Pte. Charles Herbert Riley. 

Pte. Joseph Thomas. 

Pte. Lance Carl Von Ende. 

Pte. Sheldon Uffelman. 


L.^orp. Clayton Fenner. 


Pte. Philip Odling Gothorp. Lieut. John James Jardine. 


Pte. Ivan Bernard Marty. 
Pte. Albert Edward Merner. 

Pte. Clinton Tye Walker. 
Lieut. Russell Williams. 


Experiences with the First Western Ontario 
Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force 

(Corpl. E. Wackstt, First Battalion. C. E. F.) 

At the outbreak of the Great European War in August, 1914, 
the Canadian Government decided to raise an Expeditionary Force 
of 33,000 men to assist Great Britain in her fight for freedom against 
Hohenzolleran tyranny. Within two months the force had been 
raised, equipped, armed and sent to England, a remarkable feat 
when Canada's unpreparedness from a military standpoint is con- 
sidered. The (Minister of Militia immediately established one of 
the largest military camps in the world at Valcartier, in Quebec, 
where the forces could assemble and receive their preliminary 

Camp and army grew together. Roads were made, drains 
constructed, miles of water-pipes laid down, trees removed and a 
rifle range three and a half miles long was built. Within two 
weeks of the opening of the camp, 25,000 men had arrived from 
every corner of the Dominion. 

Companies were organized and formed into battalions and 
battalions into brigades. The privilege of carrying the badge of 
the First Battalion was given to the Western Ontario units and I 
with other Kitchener men felt proud to receive this honour. 

The discipline which had been enforced from the first began 
to have good results so that the whole force rapidly became a 
trained army. 

Toward the end of September the whole division was review- 
ed by the Duke of Connaught, Sir Sam. Hughes leading us in the 
march past the saluting base. A few days later the First Bat- 
talion was on its way to Quebec and soon others followed. There 
we found the transports in waiting and we marched abroad at once 
on arriving at the docks. 

Each liner on receiving its complement of troops, guns or 
horses moved down the river to Gaspe Bay. The whole fleet of 
thirty-two vessels finally sailed from the shores of Canada on the 
third of October, 1914, in three lines ahead, guarded by six of His 
Majesty's cruisers. 

The voyage was a long one but quite uneventful. Each 
day had its drills and fatigues, washing decks, physical drill and 
boat drill, constituting a part of the routine. In the evenings we 
would assemble on deck and pass the time in singing and dancing. 
Toward the end of the voyage, when the possibility of a fight 
with the submarines added excitement to the life on board, we 
were ordered to carry our life-belts and to be always ready for 
an emergency. It was on October the fourteenth that the fleet 
entered Plymouth Sound, thus terminating the voyage. 

On hearing of our arrival the inhabitants of Plymouth who 
had been unaware of our coming, due to the strict censorship, im- 
mediately rushed in hundreds to the docks where they cheered 


and cheered again, the troops taking it up until the hills beyond 
the town re-echoed It. Next day when we disembarked and march- 
ed through the streets we received a welcome we shall never for- 
get. Within two hours after leaving the transports we had en- 
trained and were on our way to Salisbury Plains. 

The division occupied six camps on the Plains. The First 
Brigade, consisting of the first, second, third and fourth battalions, 
was located at Bustard €amp, about seven miles from the city of 

Shortly after our arrival we were reviewed by Lord Roberta, 
the occasion proving his last public appearance In England. In 
the course of his address he remarked upon the splendid bearing 
of the division and said: "We are fighting a nation which looks 
upon the British Empire as a barrier to her development and has 
in consequence long contemplated our overthrow and humiliation. 
The prompt resolve of Canada to give us such valuable assistance 
has touched us deeply." A few days later this gallant soldier 
crossed to France to review the Indian troops and there died 
within sound of the guns and among brave men, truly a fitting 
death for such a man. 

Early in November we were reviewed by His Majesty King 
George V. and Lord Kitchener. 

Meanwhile we received instruction from competent British 
army instructors and for four long months we marched and drilled 
and dug trenches in the mud of Salisbury Plains, enduring the 
cold and rain of an English winter with all the courage at our dis- 

On Sunday, February the fifth, at two o'clock In the afternoon, 
we were paraded and informed that we were leaving for France, 
and seven o'clock found us aboard the troop train speeding toward 
an unknown destination. By two the next morning we had arrived 
at Avonmouth on the Bristol Channel, and by four we were safely 
aboard the transport. Architect. We had left the shores of England 
behind and had started on the last stages of the great adventure. 

In the early morning of Wednesday, February the eighth, we 
disembarked at St. Nazaire on the Bay of Biscay and started on 
a journey by train of 350 miles for the firing line. We left the 
train at a small village called Merrls, well within sound of 
the guns, and four days later marched forward to our first exper- 
ience of actual warfare. 

We received our Initiation from the Leicesters and Staffords 
at Armentleres. The British regulars proved very friendly and 
taught us the rules of war and the code of the trenches. While 
undergoing this special instruction, we lost a few men who were 
too curious and exposed themselves to the ever ready sniper In 
looking over the parapet across No Man's Land. The German 
trenches were really only fifty yards away as the English troops 
had informed us In reply to a flood of questions. 

A few days later the division marched south to take over a 
line of trenches at Fleaubeaux, about four miles north of Neuve 
Chapelle. Before the exchange was effected. General Alderson, who 


was in command of the division.seized the opportunity to address 
the troops. The General spoke of our losses at Armentieres and ad- 
vised us to curb our curiosity. He told us further that we were 
taking over fairly good trenches. "New troops shoot at nothing the 
first night. You will not do so for it wastes ammunition and hurts no 
one and the enemy says These are new and nervous troops,' As 
a result you will be attacked. iMy old regiment, the West Kents, 
have been out since August, 1914, and have never lost a trench 
and the British Army says of them, 'The West Kents never budge.' 
It is a good omen. I now belong to you and you to me and before 
long the Army will say 'The Canadians never budge.' Lads, it can 
be left there and there I leave it." 

That night the First Battalion moved into the trenches and 
relieved the Leicestershire Regiment. Now began a period of trench 
warfare in the mud of Flanders. Water was baled out of the trenches 
hour after hour, only to ooze back through the sodden soil. Planks 
were put down and bricks from the ruined houses in our rear were 
thrown in. Yet the mud smothered everything. We stood knee 
deep in mud, sat in mud and lay in mud. We crawled through the 
mud to and from the trenches when reliefs were effected and hid 
in the mud to escape the German shells. 

It was not till the tenth of \March, 1915, when the memorable 
battle of Neuve Chapelle began, that we realized fully what war 
really meant, and appreciated the full meaning of "casualties." No 
Canadian troops went over the top during this battle, it being our 
business to keep the troops opposed to us from reinforcing Neuve 
Chapelle. That we did all that was expected of us is proven by Sir 
John French's despatch which reads "During the battle of Neuve 
Chapelle the Canadians held a part of the line allotted to the First 
Army and, although they were not actually engaged in the main at- 
tack, they rendered valuable help by keeping the enemy actively em- 
ployed in front of their trenches." After this battle had died down 
comparative quiet reigned along our trenches and towards the end 
of 'March we were relieved and withdrawn and retired to a rest camp. 

We had received our baptism of fire under very favorable cir- 
cumstances, having been surrounded by a great battle without ac- 
tually becoming involved in it. We had heard artillery fire that 
shook the earth and almost burst the ear drums. We had seen 
its terrible effect on the German trenches and had seen troops 
swing forward to the attack, and afterwards the long line of terri- 
fied prisoners brought in, seemingly dazed by the intensity of the 
barrage fire. We too had casualties for no unit enters or leaves 
the trenches without them as the sniper never fails to claim his 
daily toll. 

Early in April we marched into Belgium where the Second 
and Third Brigades took over the trenches from the French 
Eleventh Division, while the First Brigade went into reserve on 
April 17th. The First Battalion was billeted at Vlamertinghe, about 
five miles south of the stricken city of Ypres and well within the 
famous Ypres salient, spoken of by troops as "The Morgue." 

At precisely five p.m., on April the twenty-second, a bombard- 


ment started which equalled that of Neuve Chapelle in intensity. 
V/here quiet had reigned now was a shambles. The village streets 
were in chaos. Gun carriages and ammunition wagons were hope- 
lessly mixed up and galloping gun teams without their guns were 
careering wildly in all directions. Terrified women and children 
added further to the awful scene while every few minutes high ex- 
plosive shells fell into the crowded streets, causing terrible havoc. 
Orders were immediately issued for all men to stand to arms. Our 
officers learned from fugitives that the Germans had broken through 
the French lines on a four mile front by means of asphyxiating 
gas which they had projected from their trenches with force pumps. 
The deadly gas was carried over the French trenches by the wind, 
poisoning thousands of men. Those that survived the gas fled in 
terror, leaving the position undefended and the Second and Third 
Canadian Brigades on the right without any left wing. 

By midnight order had been restored and the situation com- 
municated to headquarters. Meanwhile the Canadian Divisions 
were doggedly holding their line. Although their left was "in the 
air" the left flank fell back to protect their rear, thus forming two 
sides of a triangle with the apex toward the enemy. When orders 
came- from headquarters the First Brigade immediately moved in 
to support the Third Brigade. About this time the tenth and six- 
teenth battalions made their famous charge on the wood of St. 
Julian recapturing the four British guns which had been lost when 
the French troops retired so precipitately. 

The enemy followed up his advantage by throwing four div- 
isions of the famous Prussian Guards into the gap which he had 
made in the line in an attempt to outflank the Canadian left. Had 
he succeeded, our troops as well as the British on our right would 
have been annihilated and the march on Calais an accomplished 

Formidable as the attempt undoubtedly was, it was decided to 
give relief by a counter attack upon the first line of German 
trenches, now far advanced from those originally held by the French. 
The First and Fourth Ontario Battalions were chosen to make the 
attack at half-past six on the morning of April the twenty-third. It 
is safe to say that the youngest private in the ranks as he set his 
teeth for the advance, knew the task in front of him and all that 
rested on its success. 

It did not seem possible that any human being could live in 
the rain of shot and shell that began to play upon us as we ad- 
vanced in open formation. For a time every other man seemed to 
fall. The first line came under a particularly withering fire and 
for a moment — but only for a moment — it wavered. Lieut. -€ol. 
Birchall of the Fourth Battalion coolly stepped forward and with 
a light cane in his hand he cheered us on and almost immediately 
fell dead. With a cry of anger the whole line sprang forward and 
his example and sacrifice were not in vain. In the face of a direct 
frontal fire and in broad daylight the attack was pushed home to 
the first line of German trenches and after a hand to hand struggle 
ihe last Prussian who resisted was bayoneted and the trench won. 


The measure of our success may be taken when it is under- 
stood that thi^ trench represented in the German advance, the apex 
in the breach which the enemy had made in the original French line 
and that it was two and a half miles south of that line. In the 
words of the ofiRcial despatch, "this brilliant and successful attack 
undoubtedly saved the situation." 

The Germans poured tons of shells into our trench until it was 
obliterated. We then formed into small parties and hung on in 
the shell craters. They then sent over clouds of the deadly poison 
gas, followed by strong infantry attacks. We dampened our hand- 
kerchiefs with water from our bottles and tied them over our mouths 
to act as respirators and charged to meet the attacks. They were 
so astonished to see us come reeling and staggering through the 
deadly fumes that, when their first line fell before our bayonets, 
the rest turned and ran. 

The position was becoming desperate but we were determined 
to hold the ground which we had won at such a price, and we 
did hold it against all comers and in the face of every conceivable 
form of projectile until the night of Sunday, April the twenty-fifth, 
when a relief was effected and fresh troops took over the sorely 
harassed position. 

All that remained of our gallant battalions, that had stopped 
the German advance at the critical moment and had held it in 
check without support until reinforcements could be hurried up, 
was now withdrawn and placed in support trenches. On May the 
fourth the remnant of the First Canadian Division retired to Bail- 
leul to be reorganized and reinforced. 

The First Canadian Division wrested from the trenches, over 
the bodies of the dead and maimed, the right to stand side by side 
with the superb troops who, in the first Battle of Ypres, broke and 
drove before them the flower of the German military machine. 

Thus was this little corner of Flanders consecrated for Canada. 




The Bowlbys are a well 
known U. E. Loyalist fam- 
ily in Norfolk, Brant and 
Waterloo Counties. Their 
ancestor, Richard Bowlby, 
a native of Nottinghamshire, 
England, left landed posses- 
sions in New Jersey in 17 83, 
at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, and settled in 
Annapolis County, N.S. With 
him came his son, Richard 
Bowlby, Jr., born in New 
Jersey, who married a niece 
of Josiah Wedgwood, cele- 
brated in English industrial 
history as a pioneer in fine 
pottery. Adam Bowlby, son 
of Richard Bowlby, Jr., was 
born in 1792. In the war 
of 1812 he was in charge of 
a company of coast guards, 
in Nova Scotia, and thus be- 
came a veteran of this war 
and pensioner for life. At 
the close of the war, and with renewed tide of settlement to Upper 
Canada, he joined his uncle, Thomas Bowlby, in Norfolk County. He 
married Elizabeth Sovereign, in time became a large landholder and 
farmer, and had a family of five sons, Alfred, William, David S., 
Ward H., and John W. and one daughter who married Col. Walker 
Powell, later adjutant general at Ottawa. Adam Bowlby lived in 
his later years with his son Dr. D. S. Bowlby at whose house he 
died in 1883. 

David Sovereign Bowlby, the third son of Adam Bowlby, was 
born in the Township of Townsend, Norfolk County, September 
5th., 1826 and died on Christmas morning, in Rome, Italy, in 
1903. He was educated at Upper Canada College, and at Toronto 
University, later, in his chosen profession, at the Toronto School of 
Medicine and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 
where he attained his second degree of M.D., in 18.53. 

He began practice and was for a few months in Paris. In 
October, 1853, he came to Berlin, now Kitchener, at first to fill 
the place, temporarily, of a cousin. Dr. J. W. Sovereign, but soon 
deciding to remain. His skill and care rapidly won for him a large 
practice, extending in cases to driving distances of fifteen to twenty 
miles, and he may well be said to have been for many years the 
leading physician and surgeon of the County. He was the ideal 
old time family doctor, skilled, sympathetic and forceful, effecting 
immediate improvement in his patient by the simple act of his ap- 
pearance, a type which, one sometimes thinks, is passing in the 
present day of hurry and bald matter of fact. He was County jail 
surgeon, as also coroner, for many years. 

Dr. Bowlby took active interest in public life; as member of 
the village council of Berlin for five years, 1857 and 1859 to 1862 
inclusive, as member for many years, and chairman for twenty- 
five years, of the Board of Trustees of the Berlin High School, and 
in other capacities. The prosperity of the High School was largely 
due to his wise counsel and foresight. He was for many years 


chairman of the Reform Association of North Waterloo, and in the 
Dominion election of 1882 contested the riding against Hugo 
Kranz, the previous Member, who defeated him by a small majority. 
He was first president of the old Berlin Club, now the Lancaster 

At the time of his death Dr. Bowlby was the oldest member 
of St. John's church, of which he was for many years warden, and 
delegate to the synod. He was president of the local branch of 
the Upper Canada Bible Society. 

He married, in 18.56, Martha Esther Murphy, of Montreal, a 
sister of Mrs. H. F. J. Jackson. Mrs. Bowlby survives, as do also 
two daughters and one son; Mrs. E. P. Clement, D. Shannan Bowlby, 
B.A., LL.B., County Crown Attorney and Mrs. J. P. Fennell, all 
living in Kitchener. The older son, Major G. H. Bowlby, M.D.,* is 
on the Waterloo County Roll of Honor, as is also a grandson. 
Aviation Gunner David Ward Clement. Two grandsons are in 
the British army; Lieut. G. M. Boyd in France and Gunner Edwin 
O. Clement, still in Canada. 

In his later years Dr. Bowlby had been more or less subject 
to bronchitis, spending the winter in the south, various years. An 
attack coming on at the beginning of winter he decided to spend 
some months in Sicily. Mrs. Bowlby accompanied him. He died 
a few days after landing in Italy, the first to break the circle of 
brothers and sister. 

*See Biography, 1916 Report; W.H.S. 


Another Bowlby for many 
years prominent in Berlin, now 
Kitchener, County Crown At- 
torney for hair a century, was 
Ward Hamilton Bowlby, fourth 
son of Adam Bowlby of Town- 
send Township, County of Nor- 
folli. (Ancestry see preced- 
ing biography.) He was born 
October 4th., 1834, and died 
in Kitchener January 8th., 
1917. After preliminary edu- 
cation at a clergyman's school, 
Woodhouse Rectory, near Sim- 
coe, and at the grammar 
schools of Simcoe, Streetsville 
and St. Thomas, he went to 
Upper Canada College and 
from there to Toronto Univer- 
sity where he graduated in 
arts in 1856 and in law in 
18.5 8, as gold medalist on both 
occasions, obtaining the first 
University gold medal in law 
awarded at Toronto University. 
He also studied in the law of- 
fice of Wilson, Patterson and 
Beaty, in Toronto. In May, 
1858, he was called to the bar 
and admitted as a solicitor. 
Shortly after his legal authorization Mr. Bowlby came in 1858 
to the then village of Berlin to begin practice. He was senior part- 
ner in the law firm of Bowlby, Colquhoun and Clement — the other 


partners being the late F. Colquhoun of Waterloo and E. P. Clemeni, 
K.C. — later Bowlby & Clement, and so continuing until 1903, when 
Mr. Bowlby retired from the more active practice of his profession, 
after having attained distinction as a sound lawyer, a reliable coun- 
sellor and a trenchant prosecutor. During his long career he argued 
many important cases in the High Court at Toronto and in the Sup- 
reme Court at Ottawa. 

In 1862 Mr. Bowlby was for a short time Registrar for the 
then south riding registry division with office in Preston, which 
separate registry office was discontinued in 1863. He was appoint- 
ed Crown Attorney and Clerk of the Peace of Waterloo County by 
the first Provincial Government of Ontario in December 186 7 and 
was at the time of his death the oldest incumbent of such office in 
Ontario. He was at various times member of the Town and County 
Councils, was reeve of Berlin from 1863 to 1868 and was for 
thirty years, until his resignation in 1895, member of the Public 
School Board. 

He was a shrewd investor and became a large holder in Can- 
adian Pacific, Merchants Bank and other stocks and securities. His 
place, Bowhill, with its eleven acres of well kept grounds, was an 
ornament to the County Town. The Tremaine map of 1861 shows 
the house, as also that of his brother. Dr. D. S. Bowlby. It is in- 
teresting to note that only one family, the Webers, father and son, 
was occupant of the Bowlby plot between Mr. Bowlby and original 
forest, in the Grand River Reservation of the Six Nation Indians. 
Abraham Weber came from Pennsylvania in 1807 and took as 
his allotment Lot 15 of the German Company tract of which this 
plot is a part. W. H. Bowlby bought from Sheriff Grange, the 
first Berlin real estate speculator, and he from Abraham C. Weber, 
son of Abraham Weber. ^Ir. Bowlby was a considerable traveller, 
in Europe and generally. On a trip he took up the Nile in a 
dahabeah with his family, in the winter of 1899, he wrote an in- 
teresting book which he presented to his friends. 

In 1861 Mr. Bowlby married Lissie Hespeler, eldest daughter 
of .Jacob «^ Hespeler of Hespeler. Mrs. Bowlby survives. Their only 
daughter who married Sir George H. Perley, now High Commis- 
sioner for Canada, in London, died in 1911. Of his generation 
there remains only his youngest brother, John Wedgwood BowTby, 
K.C, mayor of Brantford at 80. 

Mr. Bowlby was a member and large supporter of St. John's 
(Anglican) Church. 



John Douglas Moore was 
born April 13th., 1843, on 
the farm near Gait in North 
Dumfries Township. He was 
the son of the late George 
Moore, a native of North- 
umberland, England, and of 
Agnes Douglas, of Roxbor- 
oughshire, Scotland. He was 
educated in the old log 
school in the Dickie settle- 
ment, near Gait. His father. 
George Moore, purchased 
200 acres from the Hon. 
William Dickson in 1833 at 
four dollars an acre. 

Born and reared on the 
farm, the subject of this 
sketch in early life learned 
those demands and require- 
ments which go to the mak- 
ing of a successful career. 

His farming interests wid- 
ened from two hundred 
acres which he assumed in 
1878 to the iScott farm of 
200 acres, to the Cunning- 
ham farm of 150 acres and 
to the Wilson farm, making 
in all 700 acres, in which 
he was interested up to the time of his death. 

Besides farming the business of growing hops claimed his at- 
tention for about thirty years. 

His public career commenced in comparatively early life. In 
time he became member of the Township Council of North Dum- 
fries and later was reeve and subsequently warden of the County, 
in 1878. 

In politics Mr. Moore was a prominent Liberal and represented 
South Waterloo in the Provincial Legislature from 1891 to 1898, 
during the premiership of the late Sir Oliver Mowat. In 1901 he 
was appointed to the County Registrarship, which position he filled 
till his death. 

Mr. Moore was a promoter and charter member of the Gait, 
Preston and Hespeer Railway, a director and shareholder of the 
Brantford Binder Twine Company, and president of the Robe and 
Clothing Company of Kitchener as well as a shareholder of the 
Brantford Roofing Company. 

In religion, Mr. Moore was a Presbyterian, a former member 
of the Central Presbyterian Church, Gait, and later a member of 
St. Andrews Church, Kitchener. 

The late Mr. Moore was of a genial disposition, affable and 
friendly. His kindness and consideration of others won him many 
loyal friends. 

Mr. Moore was married to Elizabeth Moffat of North T5um- 
fries Township, who died in 1904. The union was blessed with 
one son and five daughters, who survive him. 



David Spiers was born in 
183 2 at Darvel in Scotland 
and came to Canada at an 
early age, living for a short 
time in Hamilton. At nine- 
teen he came to Gait and 
there remained. He died 
July 9th., 1917. 

He began in the store of 
Andrew Elliott & Co., which 
stood where W. W. Wilkin- 
son's establishment is now. 
Later he purchased Robert 
Wallace's grocery. From 
that time his business career 
saw many changes and ad- 
vancement, mostly in manu- 
facturing. He bought out 
the electric and gas works, 
operating the former until 
the town took over the plant 
and started using hydro-el- 
ectric power. In 1913 he re- 
placed the old timber dam 
on the Grand River in Gait 
with the present concrete 
one. He owned and oper- 
ated the oatmeal mill and 
was interested in different 
manufacturing concerns, in- 
cluding the Gait Art Metal Company of which he was president. 
He was one of the six original promoters of the Gait, Preston & 
Hespeler Railway. 

For twenty-five years Mr. Spiers served on the town council 
and for three years, 1880 to 1882 inclusive, was Mayor of Gait. 
Until the appointment of a police magistrate he performed the 
work of justice of the peace of the town. He was a member of the 
Collegiate Board for forty-three years, twenty-eight years as chair- 
man, until his retirement in 1914, and was president of the Hos- 
pital Board for the eighteen years during which he was a member 
of this Board. The new wing of the Gait hospital was built under 
his administration. 

That for which he will best be remembered, for which he more 
than any individual was responsible, is the new building of the Gait 
Collegiate Institute, massive, rugged and yet beautiful and admir- 
ably adapted to its purpose, fit monument to the sturdy character 
and civic usefulness of David Spiers. 

He was a member of Knox church and active in its manage- 
ment. He married Angela Keefer, daughter of Peter Keefer. Mrs. 
Spiers died fifteen years ago. Four sons and five daughters survive. 
The family home was in old days the residence of Dr. Tassie, in 
which many boys, from all parts of Canada and some from the Unit- 
ed States, had their domicile, from time to time, while attending the 
Tassie school. 

An intimate, long time friend says: "Mr. Spiers was a man of 
more than ordinary mental calibre. Though without any prepar- 
atory legal training he was quick in discovering the right or wrong 
in any case brought before him as a magistrate. His judgment was 
generally to be relied upon either in legal or business matters. He 
was kind-hearted and sympathetic and many a man and woman too 
has been helped by his advice given willingly and without thought 
of remuneration. He was successful in business and might have 
been even more so had he not given so much of his time to the 
nobler purpose of public service. Gait and every other city and 
town in Canada need just such men, intelUigent, honest, public- 
spirited, unselfish, and untiring in their efforts to advance the in- 
terests of the communities in which thev dwell." 


Martin N. Todd was born 
in Gait July 27th., 1858, 
and died there August 29th., 
1917. He was educated at 
Ihe Gait public school and 
the old Tassie school. Leav- 
ing home, he was for some 
years in Hamilton, in the 
employ of the Great West- 
ern Railway, thus showing 
early prediliction for an oc- 
cupation with which he was 
later to be prominently iden- 
tified. Returning to Gait he 
became associated with his 
father, Thomas Todd, in the 
Gait flour mills, and later in 
the commission business. 

Thomas Todd, in his time, 
one of Gait's prominent in- 
dustrial men, was the prin- 
cipal promoter and first pres- 
ident of the Gait, Preston & 
Hespeler Raiway.* On his 
father's death M. N. Todd 
became president of the com- 
pany, in .January 1900, and 
is now, in turn, succeeded by 
his son, M. Milne Todd, as president. Thus, since beginning 
of the Gait, Preston and Hespeler Railway, in 189 4, the 
office of president has been held in the same family; now in the 
third generation. Under M. N. Todd's management the G. P. & 
H. Ry. soon began to expand its business and eventually became 
one of the best interurban electric railway properties in Canada. 
Mr. Todd was also manager of the Lake Erie & Northern Rail- 
way; the adoption of electric traction on this line, instead of 
steam as had been contemplated, was due mainly to his foresight 
and practical judgement of trafiic requirements on it. Facilities 
for passenger and freight traffic afforded by the Gait, Preston & 
Hespeler Ry. and its connection and operation with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway — and later on with the Lake Erie & Northern Ry. 
— gave fresh impetus to the manufacturing and general business 
activities of Kitchener and Waterloo, as earlier to Preston and Hes- 
peler, a benefit due to a great extent to the energy and good 
management of M. N. Todd, in whom Waterloo County lost a val- 
uable citizen. 

While his time and effort were mainly devoted to his railway 
work, he had interest in the Gait Malleable Iron Company, the Pres- 
ton Car and Coach Company, the Stamped Enameled Ware Com- 
pany of Hespeler and in the Canada Malting Company. He had a 
farm east of Gait, where, among other things, he took particular 
interest in breeding horned Dorset sheep. He was connected with 
the Gait Horse Show from its beginning and was for years presi- 
dent of the Association; was charter member and first president of 
the Waterloo County Golf and Country Club. 

Mr. Todd was member of the Gait Hospital Trust for a number 
of years. He was a Presbyterian and of the congregation of Cen- 
tral Church, Gait. He is survived by Mrs. Todd, one daughter and 
four sons, among the latter being Lieut. Thomas Todd, now with the 
British army in Prance. The family home, Caverhill, on North 
Water Street, on the main entrance to the city, is one of the hand- 
some residence places of Gait. 

'See Waterloo County Railway History, this Report. 


Samuel J. Cherry was 
born on February 4th., 1843, 
at Diamond, Carleton County 
where his parents had settled 
on emigration from the 
County of Armagh, in the 
north of Ireland, and died at 
Preston, July 2nd., 1917. 
The family moved to Dun- 
das in his infancy. Here 
he went to school, one of 
his teachers being Robert 
Edgar, grandfather of Town 
Clerk Edgar, of Preston. At 
I he age of about 15 years 
he became apprentice in the 
grist mill of the late Jas. 
Coleman. At 19 he came to 
Preston to work in Abram 
Erb & Bros. Cambridge 
Mills, which later became 
his own. In Preston he mar- 
ried Barbara Wilrick, wlio 
predeceased him by seven 
years. He returned to Dun- 
das to take charge of the 
Joseph Webster mills and a 
few years later went to 
Guelph, to the Speedsville 
mill, then owned by the 

late James Goldie, who subsequently built a new mill of which 
Mr. Cherry was superintendent for about 12 years. By this time 
he decided to go into business for himself, or rather with his bro- 
ther John. They had in succession the Phoenix mill in Guelph, the 
Glenmorris mill, then one in Walkerton, and later operated the 
Clendinning mill until in 1879 they acquired the mill in Preston. 
Ten years later the brothers dissolved partnership, S. J. Cherry 
continuing alone. The present mill buidings date from 1894 when 
they replaced the old frame mill built in 1835 on the site of the 
original John Erb mill. Mr. Cherry improved and beautified the 
property generally, building also the two handsome brick houses 
on it, the first replacing an old frame house. 

In public life Mr. Cherry was member of the town council of 
Preston, chairman of the Park Board almost from its inception- 
to the time of his death and for eight years member of the County 
council, ending with being warden of the County in 1906. He was 
member of the Toronto Board of Trade, member of the Dominion 
Millers' Association, and director of the Gait Malleable Iron Co., 
Ltd., and of the Canadian Millers Mutual Fire Insurance Co. He 
was a member of St. Johns Church (Anglican) Preston. In politics 
he was a Conservative. 

He left two sons, George and William, and one daughter, Mrs. 
Carl Nispel, all of Preston. 

From the Gait Reporter: "Sam" Cherry was one of the most 
successful of the old time flour millers, a worthy contemporary of 
the Sherks and Sniders and Goldies, who have made Waterloo 
County famous in the flour markets of Canada, England and Scot- 
land. Sam was a public-spirited citizen, as Preston well knows. 
Who has not admired the beauty spot he created out of the canal 
and the slopes thereof? What would he not have done to bsau'ify 
Gait had he been the owner of the dam and the surroundirg pro- 
perty which, not long ago, offered opportunities for embellishnipnt 
rarely at hand in a growing and picturesque city? The Cherry 
idea in Civic Beautification should not be allowed to lapse in 
the district of which Gait and Preston form a part. 


In the demise of John 
Zyrd, who died at the home 
of his daughter, Mrs. John 
Limpert, Chapel St., Hes- 
peler, Saturday, April 12th., 
1917, at 2 o'clock p.m., 
about the last of Hespeler's 
pioneer business men has 
gone to his final rest. De- 
ceased was born in Frutigen, 
Canton Berne, Switzerland, 
on January 1st., 1835, and 
was in his 83rd year. 

When two years of age he 
came to America with his 
parents, settling in Buffalo, 
where they resided for a 
number of years, and then 
removed to Preston. The 
journey from Buffalo to 
Preston w^as made by ox 
team. At Preston he was 
employed as a printer by a 
German publication issued 
at that place. Later he 
learned the trade of tin- 
smith at Berlin. In 1857, 
just sixty years ago, he 
came to New Hope and 
started in business in the 
little building which until quite recently was situated at the rear of 
the Dominion Bank, and later moved to a building which stood 
where the present post office is situated. Through careful manage- 
ment and application to business he was forced to seek larger 
premises, and, to make provision for his growing trade, built the 
stone building now occupied as a hardware store by Hall & Sim- 
enton, in which he conducted a hardware and tinsmith business un- 
til 19 years ago, when he retired from active life to enjoy a well 
earned rest. 

Deceased had been in poor health for the past several years, 
but was able to be about until after the death of his wife. He 
took her departure very much to heart and steadily grew weaker 
until the end, which though not entirely unexpected, came rather 

In Mr. Zyrd the town lost one of the only two remaining re- 
sidents who lived in the hamlet in the days when it was known as 
New Hope. The only citizen now residing within the gates of those 
days is Mr. Gideon Ochs, who is over four score years. 

In the earlier days he took a very active interest in muni- 
cipal matters and for a number of years served in the municipal 
council, later performing the duties of town clerk for thirteen 
years, giving over the town's books to his successor, the late A. J. 
Brewster. He was a charter member of the Independent Order 
of Foresters, and a staunch Liberal^Conservative. In religion he ad- 
hered to the principles and doctrines of the Lutheran church, and 
in the prime of life and years of energy took a very active part 
in the upbuilding of the church of his faith in Hespeler. 

On April 2nd., 1865, Mr. Zyrd married Anna Barbara Metzger, 
who predeceased him by five months. Of the children born to 
them the following survive: Gustave, in Winnipeg; John, in Tor- 
onto; Mrs. John Limpert and Oscar of Hespeler; and Mrs. Geo. 
McMulking, Sault Ste Marie, Ont. — ^From the Hespeler Herald. 



William Hendry was 
born in Aberdeen, Scot- 
land, on March 2nd., 
1834, and when a child, 
not quite two years of 
age, came to Canada with 
his parents. The family 
at first occupied land 
near Winterbourne where 
the father was killed dur- 
ing the second year, by 
being crushed under a 
tree he was felling. The 
mother with her two sons 
then moved to the vicin- 
ity of Fergus where Wil- 
liam went to school. 
Charles, the older bro- 
ther started a general 
store in Conestogo, where 
William began as a boy, 
having his sleeping place 
under the counter, as was 
the custom for subassist- 
ants. In Lovell's 185 7- 
.5^ Canada Directory C. 
and W. Hendry are given 
as general merchants in 

Conestogo. Later William Hendry began business for himself in 
Neustadt, Grey County, where finally he had a store, a fiaxmill and 
a farm. 

In 1870, just after the company had been fully organized, he 
was offered and accepted the post of manager of the second com- 
pany of its kind begun in Canada, the Ontario Mutual Life Assur- 
ance Company, now the Mutual Life Assurance Company of Can- 
ada, and here he found his real life work. It was owing to his 
foresight that the newly launched vessel was steered past the rocks 
of the assessment system and began the long and prosperous voyage 
as an old-time legal reserve, purely mutual life insurance company. 

Unbounded enthusiasm, high intelligence and untiring energy 
ultimately had its reward and upon his retirement from the manage- 
ment of the company after twenty-seven years of strenuous effort, 
he had the satisfaction of seeing the institution of which he was 
the chief architect rise to stately proportions. 

Impaired health compelled his retirement in 1897, but enabled 
him to find recreation in gardening, to which he was devoted, and 
among his books. 

Mr. Hendry was a faithful member of the New Jerusalem church. 
His interests were wide and he was keenly alive to the advance- 
ment of things Canadian as well as the affairs of his home town, of 
whose council he was at one time a member. 

In 18.5.5, when twenty-one years of age, William Hendry mar- 
ried Sarah Washburn, at the old Spring "Valley farm near Berlin. 
Mrs. Hendry died in 1898. Three daughters survive. One son 
predeceased him last May. 



The Sniders are a num- 
erous and important family 
in Waterloo County. The 
ancestor of many of them 
was Christian Schneider, 
who was born in Pennsy- 
vania 17 5 8 and died in 
Waterloo County 1850. He 
came from Pennsylvania in 
1806, settled, and built the 
fine timber house still stand- 
ing near the village of Doon. 
One generation further back 
we find the progenitor Jacob 
Schneider, born in the Pal- 
atinate, who came to Penn- 
sylvania as a boy. With 
Christian Schnieder from 
Pennsylvania came his son 
.Jacob C. Snider, born in 
Franklin County, Pennsy- 
lvania, 1791, who married 
in 1812 and shortly after 
took a farm a little west 
of what became the town of 
Waterloo, later acquired the 
Waterloo grist mill, had al- 
so a sawmill and a distillery, 
and lived in the village, his house being on the site of tlie present 
Waterloo town hall. One of his younger sons, Jacob C. iSnider, Jr., 
was born in 1822, married Nancy Bricker, resided later in St. 
Jacobs where he had the mill, and lost his life in the Desjardins 
canai disaster, near Hamilton, March 12th., 1857. 

The subject of our sketch, the second son of Jacob C. Snider, 
Jr., was born in Waterloo, August 22nd., 1840, and died there 
October 5th., 1917. At the time of his father's tragic death he 
was at the Rockwood Academy, then a school of wide and deserved 
reputation. His grandfather took charge of the mill in St. Jacobs, 
but young John left school and for a few years was employed in 
the store of Bemis and Chalmers in St. Jacobs. On removal of the 
family to Waterloo he became accountant in the mill, formerly 
owned by his grandfather but then by Moyer, Ralph and Company, 
where he remained for a number of years. 

About 18 64' /lie became the partner of the late John Shuh in 
a general store and was in this business for over thirty years. He 
sold his interest in the store about twenty years ago and purchased 
the manufacturing plant of the Graybill Manufacturing Company, 
which he carried on successfully till 1916 when he disposed of his 
interest to the Snyder Desk Co. His retirement marked the comple- 
tion of over fifty years of trading and manufacturing activity, dur- 
ing the latter part of which he carried on the manufacturing of office, 
school and church furniture, which business developed to large 
proportions under his direction. 

Mr. Snider was a member of the Methodist church in Water- 
loo. In politics he was a Liberal. He never took prominent part in 
public affairs. While of a retiring disposition he was a man of 
energy and enterprise, and of integrity of character. 

John B. Snider married Susannah E. Moyer, August 7th., 
1860. Mrs. Snider and four daughters survive. 




On Monday morning, October 29, 1917, a prominent and re- 
spected citizen of New Germany breathed his last in the person of 
Edward Halter. 

Mr. Halter was born in Lower Alsace on October 12, 1834. At 
nine years of age he emigrated with his parents to Canada and 
upon reaching maturity he took up a farm near the village of New 
Germany. This he cleared and worked successfully for many years. 

In his early youth he had little opportunity to get an education. 
After having gained some sort of independence, he improved his 
mind while still farming with a wonderful stock of solid learning. 
He spoke on the platform and placed his views effectively be- 
fore his hearers. He also spoke and wrote French. 

As Justice of the Peace he secured a more than ordinary 
knowledge of legal affairs and was the trusted advisor of his 
neighborhood in intricate family and legal affairs. 

Mr. Halter, 1856, married Mary, daughter of Jos. Sharbach. 

They raised a large family of children, of whom are still liv- 
ing: Andrew, in Denver; Clement, in North Dakota; Mrs. Gregory 
Kloepfer, in New Germany; Edward and Theresa at home. The 
oldest son was Rev. Joseph Halter, professor of St. Jerome's Col- 
lege at the time of his death, 1896. One of the daughters, Ver- 
onica, joined the School Sisters de Notre Dame, in which society 
she worked many years and died 1916. 

The deceased went to Europe several times, passing through 
England, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, where he visited 
his nephew, a student, as early as 1878. He saw the pope at 
Rome, but would not comply with the regulation of appearing in 


evening dress, being specially admitted to greet His Holiness in 
farmer's tweeds. In a letter about his visit to the pope he said: 
"I did not bow as low before His Holiness as some of the people in 
regulation attire, but, I am sure, I offered him as sincere homage 
and veneration as any. The pope is a sovereign who rules an 
empire without crown or sword. His power is that he represents 
the spiritual kingdom of God on earth. Popes no longer crown 
kings, or tolerate bishops who are princes. They no longer have 
crusades, in which enthusiasm for the Holy Land degenerates into 
plundering and conquest; the Turks now rule Palestine, seemingly 
with God's approval." 

Mr. Halter was frequently urged to stand for office. Had he 
not declined he might have risen to important positions. He felt 
also that he lacked the refinement and social acquirements needed 
to mingle with those in higher walks of life. 

In 1874 he was elected to the township council, served three 
years, two years (1877 and '78) he was deputy-reeve and one 
year (1879) reeve. In 1880 he was the most active promoter of 
the Hopewell Creek Fire Insurance Company of New Germany, 
of which he was president six years, a director twelve years. In 
1874 he was appointed Justice of the Peace, through Moses 
Springer, provincial member of parliament for N. Waterloo. He 
was a Notary Public and Commissioner of the High Court for 
about 45 years. 

Edward Halter was the son of Alexis Halter and Caroline 
Haas. He had three brothers and three sisters. The family 
came from Alsace to Harve by wagon in two weeks, crossed the 
ocean in an English sailing vessel in 42 days, continued from New 
York to Albany by steamer, thence by canal boat to Rochester 
and across to Hamilton by sail. Occupying a log cabin, the father 
earned a poor living working for a kindly Mennonite, Dan Shantz, 
bringing home flour on his shoulders and carrying maple sugar to 
Preston with his oldest son, Edward. 

The deceased was over six feet tall, broad and deep chested, 
very strong, attracting attention at once by his heavy bulk, voice 
and bearing. His wife was very tall also. The old village school- 
master said that their children at christening were as big as others 
a year old. 

Contributed by Rev. John Fehrenbach. 



John Lehman Wide- 
man was born in the 
Township of Mark- 
ham, in York County, 
Province of Ontario, 
on December 27th., 
1833, and died in St. 
Jacobs on December 
6th., 1917. His father 
was Andrew Wideman 
who was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1805, and 
in 1828 had married 
Anna Lehman, who 
was born in 1805 and 
died in 1848. Andrew 
Wideman died in 1868. 
To him and liis first 
wife were born a fam- 
ily of one son and two 

John L. Wideman, 
the son, remained on 
the farm with his 
father until the age of 
sixteen. He attended 
the common schools of 
the day and later 
worked at the carpen- 
ter trade for about 
two years. 

In August, 1852, he 
came to Berlin, now Kitchener, and engaged with John W. Eby 
as clerk in his dry goods and drug store. In November of the same 
year he went to St. Jacobs as clerk in the general store of George 
W. Eby. In the fall of 185 4 he became a member of the firm of 
Yost, Winkler and Wideman, general merchants. For many years 
after, the subject of this sketch held many positions of trust and 

He was a member of the Woolw^ich Township Council from 
1866 till 1873 and became township clerk in 1873, holding the 
position for thirty-two years. In 1867 he was appointed clerk of 
the Seventh Division Court, resigning in 1893. Mr. Wideman was 
postmaster of St. Jacobs for forty-four years, having been appoint- 
ed in 1865. He was a notary public since 1879, chairman of the 
License Board of North Waterloo for ten years, and at the time of 
his death a director of the Waterloo Mutual Fire Insurance Co. 

In religion he was a devoted member of the Evangelical As- 
sociation, holding many oflices in the gift of the church, and al- 
ways actively engaged in its interests. For many years he was 
principal agent in Canada for the publishing house, in Cleveland, 
O., of the Evangelical Association. In the replacement of the old 
church building of this denomination, in St. Jacobs, with a new 
one he was particularly active during the last years of his life. 

Politically he was an ardent Liberal, having, as he often said, 
received his first lessons in politics from the Hon. Wm. McDougall. 

Mr. Wideman was a member of the Waterloo Historical Society 
from its beginning, was for two years Vice-President for St. Jacobs, 
made valuable donations to its collection and was always greatly in- 
terested in its progress. He married Margaret Winkler on March 
12th., 1854. Mrs. Wideman died in 1896. To them w^as born one 
daughter who died some years ago. 



I was born in the year 1832 in what is known as the Black 
Forest or Schwarzwald in the Ducliy of Baden, Germany. In the 
fall of 1849, after the revolution in Baden, I went to France, where 
I spent three years. From there I emigrated in 1852 to Canada, 
coming directly to Hamilton, Ontario. 

The revolution in Baden broke out actively in the latter 
part of 1848, and continued until toward the end of 1849. One 
of the main leaders was Carl Hecker, supported by Strube and 
Brentano, members of the diet. The Grand-duke Leopold fled to 
Prussia and secured the help of Prince William, grand-father of 
the present Kaiser, who at the head of a Prussian force invaded 
Baden in 1849, and defeated the insurgents. It may be interest- 
ing to state here that with the Prussians were Hesse and Nassau 
soldiers, among whom were John Ulner, who lived here and 
worked for me in Wellesley for almost half a century and the late 
Christian Meisner of Kitchener. Hecker, after one of his sharp- 
shooters had killed the Prussian general, during a parley, escaped 
to Switzerland and from there emigrated to Illinois where he died 
some years ago. I drilled on the side of the republicans under 
Hecker in 1849, but was not in any of the engagements. 

From Hamilton, I, with two companions, walked to Kitchener 
(then Berlin) in Waterloo County, arriving there on the 18th 
day of October, 1852, sixty-five years ago. There I spent the night 
at George Gaukel's tavern, a small frame hotel on the corner where 

the Walper House now stands. I paid my last York shilling (I2I/2 
cents) for my lodging and left the next morning without break- 
fast, walking to Mannheim where my father, who had preceeded 
me to this country, was working for one Isaac Shantz, making 
fanning mills and furniture, in which I assisted. Mannheim at 
that time was a more important place than it is at present. Mr. 
Shantz had a saw-mill there and a second one was operated by 
Mr. Jacob Bricker, who, after leaving Mannheim, started the foundry 
business in Waterloo, which developed into the large implement 
business there. (Now the Waterloo Manufacturing Co.) 

About one year later my father returned to Germany and I 
went to Michigan and from there to Illinois, being occupied chiefly 
in building houses and barns. In 18.5 8 I returned to Ontario, 
going to Neustadt in Grey County. I walked frm Goderich, via 
Lucknow and Walkerton, the trip requiring 2 % days hard travel, 
mostly through bush with plenty of mosquitoes and few roads, 
which to me was quite a change from the prairies of Illinois. I re- 
mained in Neustadt and the surrounding country for about eight 
years, and there, among things, I built a dam across the south 
branch of the Saugeen River, and a sawmill. 

After selling out in Neustadt I came to Smithville, now Wel- 
lesley, in mid-summer of 1866, .51 years ago, and started to build 
the first unit of the present woollen mill. To this I added from 
time to time building nearly every year, as both labor and ma- 
terial were very cheap at that time. Sometime after I bought the 
flour mill located here from one Lorenz Doering. The Doerings 
were well known as early settlers in this part of the County and 
pioneers in Wellesley. 

Christopher and Henry Doering, from Phillipsburg, laid out the 
village of Wellesley and built the flour mill and a sawmill, the 
dam and water power having been developed by a man named 
Smith after whom Smithville was named. The Doerings also built 
and operated a general store and it was this development and their 
enterprise that induced others to come here and start business, 
among them Alexander Meyer, tinsmith; Chas. Achtenberg, tailor; 
John Zoeger from Petersburg, who built a store and a hotel; Peter 
Berdux and one Freeborn and a man named Smith, all three of 
whom built hotels. Every one seemed to want to have a hotel. All of 
these early settlers have long since departed and, hale and hearty, 
at 85 years of age, I feel as if I were about the only one that is left. 

After operating the woollen mill and flour mill a few years, I 
also built another sawmill and a stave and heading plant, and the 
first part of the present general store. I may state that I 
put up 32 structures of one kind and another here in connection 
with my business. 

Among other things, I organized the Wellesley and North 
Easthope Agricultural Society, buying the site and putting up the 
building for the same. 

All the different enterprises I helped to develop have been dis- 
posed of, except the woollen mills, which have been increased and 
added to from time to time, and the general store and hardware 
business, all of which employ in the neighborhood of 100 hands 
and are carried on by the firm of Reiner Bros. & Co., Ltd. 


Donations Received in 1917 

Berlin Telegraph, First Volume, 1853; loaned by D. A. Beau, 

Berlin Chronicle, Vols. 1857, 1858; donated by J. P. Jaffray, 

Chronicle Telegraph, Gait Reporter, Preston liogress, New 
Hamburg Independent, Elmira Signet, weekly papers donated an- 

Daily Telegraph and Daily News Record, I'Jl'); donated by 
Kitchener Public Library. 

Der Friedensbote, May 1819; Allentown, Pa. 

Shackles, old, County Jail, used when transferring prisoners; 
donated by J. Cook, Kitchener. 

Waterloo County Directory, first, 1864; donated by .J. Cook, 

Six Photographs, New Hamburg Flood, August 1883; donated 
by J. Cook, Kitchener. 

Upper Canada College Register, 1830-1916; donated by J. N. 
MacKendrick, Gait. 

History of the Catholic Church in Waterloo County; donated 
by the author. Rev. Theo. Spetz, C.R., D.D. 

Framed Photograph of Rockwood Academy, 1866; donated by 
J. Hespeler, Waterloo. 

Woolwich Township Council Proceedings, 1850 to 1905; donated 
by J. L. Wideman, St. Jacobs. 

Tassie School, Old Boys' Reunion, 19 02, large indexed photo- 
graph; donated by D. Forsyth, B.A., Kitchener. 

Jubilee Book, Lutheran Synod of Canada; donated by Luther- 
an Book Room, Kitchener. 

Hells und Gnaden Ordnung, Henry Eby, Pub., 1844; donated 
by Charles Moogk, Waterloo. 

Photographs: Waterloo County Roll of Honour Men and J. D. 
Moore, S. J. Cherry, M. N. Todd, Wm. Hendry, John Zryd, Joseph 

Retting-tool, for flax. Used by early Waterloo County farm- 
ers; donated by D. N. Pannabaker, Hespeler. 

Old Style Dentist Tools. Used locally 50 years ago by G. M. 
Debus, Sr. ; donated by G. M. Debus, Kitchener. 

Portfolio containing early settlement photographs, old letters 
and documents, medal, coin holder, pocket book, etc.; donated by 
A. R. G. Smith, Haysville. 

Old Document Seals, etc.; donated by E. J. Beaumont, Kitchen- 

County Historical Papers; donated by John L. Wideman, 
St. Jacobs. 

Exchange List: 

Ontario Historical Society. 

Women's Canadian Historical Society, Ottawa. 

Niagara Historical Society. 

Thunder Bay Historical Society. 

Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute. • 

York Pioneer and Historical Society. 

Essex Historical Society. 

Wentworth Historical Society. 

Huron Institute. 

Brant Historical Society. 

London and Middlesex Historical Society. 

Commission of Conservation, (Reports,) Ottawa. 

Library of Congress, (Report,) Washington, D. C. 


Catalog of Museum 


Indian: Stone axe, spear heads, arrow heads, etc., found in 
Waterloo County. 

Medals: Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, London, Eng. 
Tercentenary of Founding of Quebec, 1908. 

Native hand bag and girdle from iSanto, New Hebrides. 

Saddle: side saddle, of fine workmanship, brought from Penn- 
sylvania, 1805, by John Erb family. 

Seals: Province of Upper Canada, etc. 

Shackles: old, used when transferring prisoners, County Jail. 

Shot-gun: G. Bettschen. 

Smith Portfolio: County historical articles and papers. 

Wagon: four horse settlers' wagon, "Prairie Schooner Type,'' 
brought from Pennsylvania by Abraham Weber, 1807. 

War ^Material: shell made by Canadian Buffalo Forge Co., 1915. 
Shell made by Goldie, McCulloch Co., 1915. 

Wheels: two of light wagon of 1804, Samuel Bricker and 
David Erb. 


Archives, Ontario, Parts I., II., III., IV. 
Bettschen family. Gottlieb Bettschen. 
Bettschen, Gottlieb. Through Switzerland. 
Breithaupt, Catharine. Life and Times. 
Catholic Church in Waterloo County. Rev. Theo. Spetz. 
Chippewa Testament. Albany, 1833. 
Directory, Lovell's Canada, 1857-58, 1871. 
Waterloo County, first, 1864. 
Eby, Henry, Publications, Berlin, Canada West. 
Heils und Gnaden Ordnung, 1844. 

Kirchen Geschichte und Glaubens Lehre, Bishop B. Eby, 

Pilger Reise, Dritter Theil, 1850. 
Gait, Reminiscences, H. Cant. 
Gait, History of Trinity Church, Canon Ridley. 
German Grammar, Otto Klotz, Preston, 1867. 
Historical Society Reports, etc., see exchanges, 1917 list. 
Indians, American, North of Mexico, Handbook of, Parts I. 
and II. 

Jubilee Book, 1861-1911, Lutheran Synod of Canada. 
Kalender, Der Hochdeutsche Am., Germantown, 1772. 
Turner & Fischer's Deutscher, Philadelphia, 1848. 
National Road, The. Robert Bruce. 


Pioneer Life, Pen Pictures of Early. A. M. Shark, Toronto. 
Review of Historical Publications, 1915, 1916. 
Ryerson Memorial Volume, 1844-1876. 
Upper Canada College, Register, 1830-1916. 
Wissler Family Record, Henry Wissler, Elora. 
Woolwich Township Council, Proceedings 1850-1905. 
Wilmot, History of Parish of, 1828-1'913. C. J. Fox. 


Deed upon Parchment, dated July 20th., 1805. 
Historical Papers, Miscellaneous Papers, 1845, etc. 
Muster Rolls of ll'lth and 111 8th Battalions, 1916, 1917. - 
Posters of Queen's Birthday Celebration of 1865. 


Berlin, 1855. 

Bridgeport, 1856. 

Galine's Map of Lake Ontario Country and West, 1670. 

New Hamburg, 1854. 

Portfolio of Maps of Berlin, Gait, Ouelph, Stratford, etc. 

Waterloo, 1855. 

Waterloo County, Tremaine's large wall map, 1861. 


Alte und Neue Welt, 1841, published in Philadelphia. 

Berlin Chronicle, 1857 and 1858. 

Berlin Daily News, 1878, 1879 and News Record 1894-1908. 

Berlin Telegraph, 1853, (first year,) Loan. 

1857 to 1864, incomplete. 

Berliner Journal, complete from first number December 29th., 
1859 to December 1916. Continued as Ontario Journal. 

Boston Gazette, March 12th., 1770. 

Canada iMuseum, Vol. 1835-36. Loan. 

Canada Museum, June 27th., 1840. 

Canadian Farmer, 1864. 

Canadian Freeman, April 17, 1828. 

Canadisches Volksblatt, 1865. 

Chronicle Telegraph. 

Collection of single copies of the following: — Evening Times, 
Daily Times, Canadische Kolonist, Deutsche Canadier, Berlin Ex- 
press, Daily News, Morgenstem, Wochenblatt and sundry others. 

DaUy News Record, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 
1916, 1917. 

Daily Telegraph, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 
1916, 1917. 66 

Deutsche Canadier, 1840-41, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 
1853, 1854, 1855, 1856-62. 

Deutsche Zeitung, 1891 to 1898, complete. 

Elmira Signet, 1893, 1916, 1917. 

Freie Presse, 1886, 1887. 

Friedens Bote, Allentown, Pa., May 1819. 

Gait Reformer, 1853-62, 1867, 1869, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 
1880, 1881, 1883, 1885-1900, 1903-1912. Loan. 

Gait Reporter, 1916, 1917. 

Morgenstern, 1840-41. 

New Hamburg Independent, 1917. 

New Hamburg Neutrale, 1855, 1857. 

New York Evening Post, first issue, Nov. 16th., 1801, reprint 

Ontario Glocke, 1883 to 1898, 1888 missing. 

Ontario Journal, formerly Berliner Journal, 1917. 

Pennsylvania Packet, weekly, issue of July 8, 1776, contain- 
ing Declaration of Independence. 

Phrenological Journal, 1861, 1862, with contemporary bio- 

Waterloo Chronicle, 1868, 1869. 

Wellesley Maple Leaf, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, 

PIOTUBEiS: Mostly Photographs 

Berlin, 1863, corner King and Queen Streets. 
Breslau Bridge, 1856, water color. 
Muster of Volunteer Officers, New Hamburg, 1866. 
New Hamburg Flood of August 19th., 1883, six photographs. 
Niagara Falls, 1863. 

Officers of 111th Battalion, South Waterloo, 1916. 
Portraits, County, Soldiers, etc. 
Preston, 1856, lithograph. 
Stedman Indian Deed, 1795, photograph. 
Rockwood Academy, 1866. 

Tassie School, Old Boys Reunion, 1902, large indexed group 

The 111th Battalion, South Waterloo, 1916. 
The 118th Battalion, North Waterloo, 1916. 
Volunteer Company of New Hamburg, 1886. 
Waterloo County Council, 1889. 


Index: Reports I. to V. 


Boundaries of Canada II. 

Catalog of Museum V. 

Constituition and Bylaws II. 

Gait Public Library, History II. 

Germans, Early Waterloo County: Hespeler, Klotz, 

Beck, Tagge, Gaukel, etc I. 

Haysville, History IV. 

Indian Occupation of Southern Ontario IV. 

Lundy's Dane Centennial II. 

Museum, Waterloo Historical Society .- III. 

Preston, KJotz Hisitory V. 

Railway History, Waterloo County • • • V. 

Rldgeway, Battle of • • HI- 

Roll of Honour IV. 

Roll of Honour. . , V. 

Roll of Honour, Officers and Men, first list; Pte. 

Eby, Capt. Lockhart, Lieut. Briscoe, Pte. Pat- 

tinson, etc • • • III. 

School History of Waterloo County and Berlin ....... II. 

Snetz, Rev. Theo. Importance of Local History. . . • . • I. 

Stedman Indian Deed II. 

Tassie's School Recollections' HI. 

War — Experience with First W. Ont. Regt., C.E.F., 

Corp. E. Wacketit V. 

Waterloo, Early Recollections of III. 

Waterloo County, on Early History of I. 

Waterloo Militia: 

108th Regiment III. 

29th Highland Light Infantry III. 

118th Battalion IV. 

111th Battalion ^ IV. 


Bowlby, Dr. D. S V. 

iBowlby, W. H. K.C V. 

Bowlby, Major G. H .' IV. 

Bowman, Col. H. J IV. 

Cherry, S. J V. 

Dickson, Hon. William IV. 

Halter, E ( V. 

Hobson, Joseph .■ V. 

Huber, Allen III. 

Klotz, Dr. Otto II. 

Jackson, H. F. J V. 

Moore, J. D V. 











INDEX: cot^nued 

R. P. 

Pearce, Thomas II. 49 

Randall, George V. 22 

Reiner, J. G V. 62 

Rlttinger, John A. . . .' III. 11 

Sherk, Rev. A. B. IV. 35 

Snider, J. B V. 58 

Spiers, D V. 53 

Todd, M. N V. 54 

Wideman, J. L V. 61 

Zryd, J V. 56 




1912/13 ^"^^^1 volume